ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PDF
Encyclopedia of computer science and technology / Harry Henderson.—Rev. ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. PDF | On Sep 30, , Hans-Werner Gottinger and others published Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. general-purpose computer to much better than 1 millisecond ( s) or to deliver Standards and Technology [UTC(NIST)] and by the U.S. Naval Observatory.
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ter technologies continually implement new computer con- sumer products. A . Ralston and E. Reilly, Encyclopedia of Computer Science. weinratgeber.info 8. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology bridges the gap between scanty "computer glossaries" with brief definitions and dense multivolume. Computer science handbook / editor-in-chief, Allen B. Tucker—2nd ed. p. cm. .. in computer graphics, software technology, and parallelism. The s saw would not have appeared in such an encyclopedia even ten years ago. We begin .
In Joseph-Marie Jacquard — invented perhaps the first type of programmed machine, called Jacquard's Loom, in order to automate the weaving of cloth with patterns.
Jacquard was motivated by the desire of capitalists in the early Industrial Age who wanted to reduce the cost of producing their goods through mass production in factories.
The twentieth century saw the development of scientific research and engineering applications that required increasingly complex computations. Urgent military needs created by World War II spurred the development of the first electronic computers; the devices in use today are the descendants of these room-sized early efforts to streamline military planning and calculation.
The needs and desires of society have subsequently influenced the development of a vast array of computing technologies, including supercomputers , graphics processors, games, digital video and audio, mobile computing devices, and telephones.
In the twenty-first century, computers are used in almost every facet of society, including but not limited to agriculture, architecture, art, commerce and global trade, communication, education, governance, law, music, politics, science, transportation, and writing.
In general, computing technologies have been applied to almost every situation falling into one of two categories. The first category covers applications that require the organization, storage, and retrieval of large amounts of information such as library catalogs or bank records. The second category includes applications that require the coordination of complex processes, like the control of machinery involved in the manufacture of cars or the printing of books and newspapers.
Impact of Computers on Work One of the ways that computers have made an impact on society is in how people have organized themselves in workplace groups in relationship to computers.
Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th Edition
The earliest computers were developed to perform specific tasks in science, engineering, or warfare that had previously been done by hand. Soon general-purpose computers could automate almost any information processing task required to manage an organization, such as payroll processing and record management.
However, since early generation computers were relatively expensive, all of an organization's information processing tasks were typically centralized around the one large computer it could afford. Departments and people in such organizations would likewise be organized in a centralized fashion to facilitate their access to the computer.
Companies with centralized information processing, for example, usually had most of their administrative offices in the same geographic location as their computer resources. Subsequent developments in computing technology changed the way companies organized people who perform similar tasks. The advent of computer networking and lower cost minicomputers enabled entire organizations that were once centralized around a single computer to rearrange themselves into geographically dispersed divisions.
The integration of telecommunications with computing allowed people in remote places such as branch offices to use computers located in distant parts of their organization. This decentralization continued with the advent of the personal computer. PCs provided a low-cost way for large organizations to transform themselves further by redistributing information processing responsibilities to small departments and individuals in many locations.
Not only have computers changed the way in which workplaces structure their tasks and workers, they have also dramatically changed the work itself. These contributions include: The start of the " Digital Revolution ", which includes the current Information Age and the Internet. It also enabled advanced study of the mind, and mapping of the human genome became possible with the Human Genome Project.
Algorithmic trading has increased the efficiency and liquidity of financial markets by using artificial intelligence , machine learning , and other statistical and numerical techniques on a large scale. Even films that feature no explicit CGI are usually "filmed" now on digital cameras , or edited or post-processed using a digital video editor.
Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE, as well as software for physical realization of new or modified designs.
The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits. There are many applications of AI, some of which can be seen at home, such as robotic vacuum cleaners. It is also present in video games and on the modern battlefield in drones, anti-missile systems, and squad support robots.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Human—computer interaction combines novel algorithms with design strategies that enable rapid human performance, low error rates, ease in learning, and high satisfaction. Researchers use ethnographic observation and automated data collection to understand user needs, then conduct usability tests to refine designs. Key innovations include the direct manipulation , selectable web links, touchscreen designs, mobile applications, and virtual reality.
Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy,  to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. Other limitations to CAD are being addressed by research and development in the field of expert systems.
This field is derived from research done in AI. One example of an expert system involves incorporating information about the nature of materials—their weight, tensile strength, flexibility, and so on—into CAD software. By including this and other information, the CAD system could then "know" what an expert engineer knows when that engineer creates a design.
The system could then mimic the engineer's thought pattern and actually "create" more of the design. Expert systems might involve the implementation of more abstract principles, such as the nature of gravity and friction, or the function and relation of commonly used parts, such as levers or nuts and bolts.
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Such futuristic concepts, however, are all highly dependent on our abilities to analyze human decision processes and to translate these into mechanical equivalents if possible. One of the key areas of development in CAD technologies is the simulation of performance.
Among the most common types of simulation are testing for response to stress and modeling the process by which a part might be manufactured or the dynamic relationships among a system of parts. In stress tests, model surfaces are shown by a grid or mesh, that distort as the part comes under simulated physical or thermal stress.
Dynamics tests function as a complement or substitute for building working prototypes. The ease with which a part's specifications can be changed facilitates the development of optimal dynamic efficiencies, both as regards the functioning of a system of parts and the manufacture of any given part.
Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th Edition
Simulation is also used in electronic design automation, in which simulated flow of current through a circuit enables the rapid testing of various component configurations. The processes of design and manufacture are, in some sense, conceptually separable. Yet the design process must be undertaken with an understanding of the nature of the production process. It is necessary, for example, for a designer to know the properties of the materials with which the part might be built, the various techniques by which the part might be shaped, and the scale of production that is economically viable.
The conceptual overlap between design and manufacture is suggestive of the potential benefits of CAD and CAM and the reason they are generally considered together as a system.For example, a physical computer process that implements a program plays the role of the semantics to the linguistic program, while the same linguistic program can play the role of semantic domain to an algorithm.
They are working tools, not elegant mathematical theories; it is very hard to explore them mathematically. The latter dictates no such method.
But of course the proof-checker is itself in need of checking. However, for explanatory purposes, it would be redundant to provide an explanation of the occurred slip at the hardware level of abstraction, by advancing the detailed description of the hardware components and their functional organization.
All studies related to mathematical, logic and formal concepts and methods could be considered as theoretical computer science, provided that the motivation is clearly drawn from the field of computing.
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