EROS AND CIVILIZATION PDF
EROS. AND CIVILIZATION. A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. HERBERT MARCUSE. With a N_ew Preface by the Author. BEACON PRESS. BOSTON. EROS. AND CIVILIZATION. A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. HERBERT MARCUSE. With a N_ew Preface by Pdf'm (London: Hogarth Press, ), II, '·. 1 Eros and Civilization, by Herbert Marcuse Outline by Philip Turetzky, [email protected] weinratgeber.info Preface: Psychological categories have become political.
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Eros and Civilization by Herbert Marcuse. Author(s): Barbara Celarent. Source: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. , No. 6 (May ), pp. Source: Eros and Civilization, A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. Herbert Marcuse. With a New Preface by the Author, published by Beacon Press, Boston, ;. Front Matter by Editor, in Eros and Civilization: Philosophical Inquiry Into Freud, by Herbert Marcu se. (Beacon Press, Boston, MA, ). pp. iii
A new reality principle is found in the aesthetic. The Aesthetic Dimension: A Aesthetics as the science of sensuousness: B Reconciliation between pleasure and freedom, instinct and morality: Pleasure of the sensuous is the center of the mind mediating freedom and nature symbolically, since no sense can realize the idea of freedom. For this to serve as a reality principle the aesthetic must be valid for both sensuousness and morality.
Representation of pure sensuous form is work of the faculty of imagination: Both give pleasure in the free play of human potentials, i.
C Aesthetic theories of Baumgarten, Kant, and Schiller: Sensuousness had been just the raw material for cognition in prior epistemology; its cognitive contents were denigrated esp. Aesthetics changed this. Via play aesthesis would harmonize feeling and reason. Beauty is the perfection of sensuous cognition, so the science and order of sensuousness becomes the science and order of art.
The roots of art in pleasure have been repressed by finding gratification in the pure form of the object and confining free play to art relegates it to the unreal and unengaged with human existence.
Only a new mode of civilization can reconcile these thru a third, the play, impulse. D Elements of a non-repressive culture: This occurs when reality loses its seriousness and interest in display and appearances.
This is freedom in reality not merely inner freedom. Such freedom would be irresponsible if play only occurred in an otherwise repressive world, i.
Nature would be contemplated, neither dominating nor dominated, freely expressing the inner life of objects.
a philosophical inquiry into Freud.
Human activity would be display neither passive suffering, nor servitude. A non-repressive civilization, through liberating play, must abolish time in time, reconcile being and becoming, identity and change. E Transformation of work into play: Possession of means to life is heteronymous precondition not content of freedom.
Reunion via play may take these values back into and transform the sensuous organic structure of human existence. The Transformation of Sexuality into Eros: A The abolition of domination: B Effects on the sex instincts: Development of libido within performance principle institutions explodes suppressed sexuality in sadomasochistic orgies, prison and concentration camp guards strengthening constraints.
But, free development of transformed libido beyond these institutions would transform them too. Eroticizing bodies, time, and integrating sexuality in a larger order. Oedipal wish is overcome naturally Self-sublimation of sexuality implies the eroticization of the whole organism.
D Repressive versus free sublimation: Sexual sublimation changes libido into cultural uses, by means of the already socially preconditioned pleasure principle. E Emergence of non-repressive societal relationships: F Work as the free play of human faculties: To do this it must achieve a higher unity of people in work relations which are at the same time libidinal relations.
Even Freud recognizes that work contains a libidinous component. A change in instinctual structure is a change in the aim of activities regardless of their content. So the same act can be play without losing its useful content.
So altered social conditions could create an instinctual base for transforming work into play. G Possibility of libidinous work relations: Utopian socialists Fourier almost see the dependence of freedom on non-repressive sublimation, but still retain social organizations of repressive administration.
Efficiency as pleasure glorifies dehumanization [cf.
Eros and Thanatos: A The new idea of reason: This releases time for free play which generates new forms of work and discovery which reshape the relations between reason and instinct. Forming an eroticized community, the pleasure principle extends to consciousness. The conditions of a free society are a matter of reason. B Libidinous morality: Can Eros manifest an element of self-restraint? Freud suggested that obstacles might promote pleasure [seduction?
Prolongation heightens pleasure and distinguishes it from mere satisfaction of desire. This has served domination but could create conflicts with libidinal value as an element of freedom. But in mature culture, beyond the reality principle, the maternal image can promise a free future.
C The struggle against the flux of time: The flux of time serves social repression as its most basic means of banishing freedom to utopia. Memory, which is the source of slave morality of contract and obligations, can also serve to remember pleasures and freedom. D Change in the relation between Eros and death instinct: Critique of Neo-Freudian Revisionism: Related Papers.
This alters pleasure itself. B Genetic and individual repression: 1 Both ontogenetically and phylogenetically the reality principle represses the pleasure principle. D Civilization and want: rationalization of renunciation: 1 Scarcity reinforces repression and the reality principle. He shows the barbarous roots of the highest values. Constraint and unfreedom are then the price of culture. C Common conservative nature of primary instincts: 1 Yet the instincts come to seem to have a common regressive nature.
The instincts serve repetition and death. The delay is long enough to see Eros as unifying force preserving all life. Yet Eros ultimately seems to partake of the the same conservative nature as the death instinct. E Id, ego, superego: The historical character of the instincts requires a new model of the person.
Eros and Civilization
Perception and consciousness are the part of the ego that test reality and preserve its existence. The ego represents the external world for the id, and it asserts the reality principle,ordering and controlling the id's impulses. Ego thinks as a detour from past to repeated gratifications, and defends them against external world and destructive impulses.
K Alienated labor and the performance principle: 1 Work some pain and delayed gratification is necessary to deal with scarcity. The mode of work, distribution of scarce goods, direction of goods to needs have been imposed on individuals by violence and the rational use of power.
Different modes of domination will yield different forms of repression: who works, under what sort of production and economy, e. L Organization of sexuality: taboos on pleasure: 1 Surplus repression and basic repression interact.
N below in which the repression of Eros calls up the very destructive forces that repression was meant to quell. It assume rationalized domination in which the interests of domination and of the whole coincide.
Restrictions operate as objective laws and are internalized in individual desires p. Body and mind become instruments of alienated labor under the distribution of time. Sexuality is originally polymorphous-perverse. The perversions are seductive in promising greater satisfaction, express rebellion against the performance principle, claim instinctual freedom, are allied with phantasy and art.
The order of procreation is endangered showing the identity of Eros and the death instinct and the drive to fulfillment regresses from the pleasure principle to the Nirvana principle.
Eros and Civilization
M Organization of destruction instincts: 1 There is no social organization of the death instinct. It is manifest in sadomasochistic perversions and is taboo. N Fatal dialectic of civilization: The very progress of civilization leads to the release of increasingly destructive forces.
C The primal horde: rebellion and restoration of domination: 1 The archaic heritage leads back to the domination of humans by humans and the incomplete rebellion against the father. We are still haunted by the memory of these prehistoric impulses.
Its truth eludes verification, but explains actual historical consequences. Domination suppressed pleasure and created the conditions for labor and progress to continue. The father and his later images embody the reality principle. Religion reinforces this order polytheism turns to monotheism and restores the all powerful father.
D Dual content of the sense of guilt: 1 Guilt about the original patricide threatens to destroy the group by removal of the preserving authority and by return of the pleasure principle. They then embody the reality principle. F The failure of revolution: 1 How is the return of the repressed manifested historically?
Actual history matters little, the consequences are the same.
G Changes in father-images and mother-images: 1 The pleasure principle transformed into the performance principle changes the object of struggle. These become divided by the incest taboo which separates affection created by abstinence from sensual desire, making lasting group relations possible. But the industrial age develops these institutions past their limits. They begin to destroy civilization. The Dialectic of Civilization: A Need for strengthened defense against destruction: 1 Freud argues, from the nature of the instincts and the increase in contemporary wars and bigotries, that progress requires an increase in the sense of guilt.
Eros and civilization
But strengthening defences against aggression needs to and cannot enlist a strong Eros as a binding force, since civilization is founded on the suppression of Eros. So the performance principle is not absolute instead the image of a non-repressive civilization bears examination. D Progress in productivity and progress in domination: 1 Creative work must be distinguished from necessary labor.
These destructive violations of nature are not as effectively sublimated as Eros and seldom strengthen life. Mastery over nature and better social arrangements change historically and lessen the need for delayed gratification and inhibition of the instincts, so less regimentation could still indicate more repression. F Decline of struggle with the father: 1 The domination-rebellion-domination cycle progresses with increasing impersonal, objective, universal, rational, productive domination.
Instincts become controlled by social use of labor power. Revolt becomes crime against the whole social order which secures goods and fulfills needs, so maximizes guilt. With growing mastery over nature, the alibi of scarcity is a mask for poor distribution. Technics free energy that could be put into free play for the satisfaction of needs beyond those of survival.Marcuse also discusses the views of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schiller ,  and criticizes the psychiatrist Carl Jung , whose psychology he describes as an "obscurantist neo-mythology".
New York: Arg: freedom conditional on standard of living serves the entrenchment of repression. An Introduction. A The new idea of reason: Philip Turetzky.
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