WELL SAID PRONUNCIATION FOR CLEAR COMMUNICATION PDF
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well said intro: pronunciation for clear communication pdf - offering a lively and communicative approach for increasing pronunciation and speaking skills, well. Linda has pursued her interest in first and second language pronunciation for over forty years. She has taught ESL students at Georgia Tech, international. well said intro pronunciation for clear communication - "summary of well said intro pronunciation communication weinratgeber.info free download here fall http://k -.
Hypothetical narrative extract illustrating how rehearse in advance to give orally. Students should listen to text can be divided into chunks, or thought groups.
Such mastery chunks is helpful not only as a means for listeners to will help promote overall communicative competence. We process information but also as a strategy for speakers to believe that when students practice the simple form and organize their thoughts. By conversation, we mean the coconstructed discourse of normal talk, where two or Practice Using Discourse Markers and Intonation more interlocutors initiate and respond to a changing in Conversation variety of topics. Dialogues are commonly used to model, Prepare and read a written dialogue with among other things, conversational style, appropriate discourse markers.
Elicit from students the functions and meanings of language. Dialogues are also ideal for controlled practice the discourse markers awareness. Use controlled practice with pronunciation of focus, and intonation work together with body language.
Many spoken discourse markers are hard to 3. They also are important in regulating conversational 4. Pair students to practice dialogues, asking them to speech, but do not occur in written speech and are rarely focus on language, intonation, and body explicitly taught Schiffrin, Specifically, this activity language. Ask students to perform dialogues. These cues are Figure 4.
An instructional sequence to help students learn associated with fixed intonation patterns so that they have discourse markers and practice intonation.
Their use and typical intonation patterns are illustrated in the constructed dialogue below, with the accented syllable in boldface. The that can help students learn discourse markers and their attention or agreement marker usually has rising intonation intonations. B1, A3 , with the accent on the second syllable, whereas Teaching discourse markers may require the teacher to the negation or disagreement marker falls in pitch and is adapt textbook dialogues because textbook dialogues accented on the first syllable B2.
Adapting textbook dialogues so that B2: Hmm umm [meaning: No]. They are also naturally in speech.
Umm hmm is associated with a small up-and-down nod of Activity 4: Focus and the head, whereas Hmm umm, like other negative markers Comparison-Contrast Writing in English, is accompanied by a small side-to-side head shake. Although the body language is not always available In English for academic purposes classes, students demon- as a cue as in telephone conversations , learning to make strate mastery of course content through writing.
In the VOL. A common format for exploring 1. Underline the contrasting elements in the chart. Create a sentence for each main difference. Students might compare two or more readings, points of 3.
Well said : [pronunciation for clear communication]
Take turns saying your sentences. For example, Figure 5 presents 4. Emphasize the contrasting elements in each sentence to help your partner understand your meaning e. Figure 6. San Francisco in Midwest in West many tourists spread out compact distinctive flat skylines hilly Automobile B. As a class, the students discussed ways in snows often rarely snows which they might join clauses to create sentences in their have harbors paragraphs. Then, working in pairs, students shared and compared the information in their charts.
If students are learning about focus for the first time, they will probably not use it correctly. In this class, however, because students were working with the same content for several days, the use of focus to highlight contrasts was recycled in an example of a Venn diagram, a graphic organizer used to natural classroom interactions. On one day, for example, help organize an essay comparing and contrasting two cities.
Once students have read, taken lecture notes, and begun to organize their Comparing Two Automobiles ideas, they often discuss content, a step that provides an Feature Automobile A Automobile B opportunity to practice pronunciation points in realistic Age 3 years old 6 years old conversational exchanges. Chart using focus indicated in boldfaced italics NEVer has snow. This ability to emphasize what is key or important in spoken discourse is crucial to intelligibility, especially in of effective and ineffective comparisons in their paragraphs.
Students wrote sample sentences on the board, and the In Figure 6, the use of focus to highlight contrasts was class worked through the grammar points with the teacher, integrated into an oral prewriting activity in an ESL which provided additional opportunities for them to hear writing class.
The task is When integrating pronunciation into the writing adaptable to a variety of comparisons, such as apartments process, the process moves from a wider emphasis on the and places to shop.
The use of focus to highlight contrast- task to a narrower emphasis on the pronunciation point ing elements was incorporated into the instructional needed to complete the task. The advantage is that students sequence.
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For example, teachers can incorporate Firth, S. Pronunciation syllabus design: A question of focus in pre- and postlistening and reading questions to focus. Ehrlich Eds. Oxford: Oxford comparative structures. University Press. Gilbert, J. Intonation: A navigation guide for the listener. Morley Ed. Conclusion 38— Jenkins, J.
The phonology of English as an international Although pronunciation instruction can be sensibly language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Teaching focus for conversational use. ELT particularly relevant to classes where speaking is central. An Journal, 55 1 , 47— Suprasegmentals in thing is said is frequently more important than what is the pronunciation class: Setting priorities. The way something is said obviously includes such Ehrlich Eds. But it also must Morley, J.
The pronunciation component in teaching include pronunciation, which, when inadequate, has been English to speakers of other languages. Morley, J. A multidimensional curriculum design for We have shown ways in which effective use of pronun- speech-pronunciation instruction. Alexandria, tion. Speech is processed more easily if speakers chunk Murphy, J.
Well said : pronunciation for clear communication
Intonation is essential to listening, speaking, and pronunciation. Important cues about 25, 51— Discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge contrasted with a topic are signaled by sentence focus. Other areas could easily be added to this list, such as the Yule, G.
The effects of pronunciation importance of shorter and longer syllables in creating teaching. Awareness of how these and other pronunciation issues impact speaking can be enhanced Authors through awareness building and explicit instruction.
Such instruction is more likely to be productive when students John M. Levis is assistant professor of TESL and applied linguistics can see how pronunciation improvement helps them in the Department of English at Iowa State University, in the communicate in English more effectively. His research interests include the intelligibility of spoken References language and the integration of pronunciation into oral communication curricula. Blanton, L.
The multicultural workshop, Book 2. Breiner-Sanders, K. Celce-Murcia, M. Teaching presents, and consults in her area of special interest—integrating pronunciation with speaking and listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cutler, A. Prosody in the comprehension of spoken language: A literature review. Students must still learn to produce and distinguish all the other consonants and most consonant clusters.
This really does not reduce the teaching load very much. Although the rules for teaching vowel length before final consonants appear simple and thus learnable, Jenkins, , p.
Teaching vowel length before final consonants requires good phonetic training, which many teachers lack. In stating that students need to master the difference between long and short vowels, Jenkins only gives the example of leave and live. By referring to the long- short vowel distinction, Jenkins defines the LFC in terms of an analysis of the nonrhotic BrE vowel system.
Jenkins rightly focuses on nuclear stress as the most important area of intonation to be taught. It is difficult for learners to change their overall intonation contours rises and falls , and errors are unlikely to lead to unintelligibility or even to be noticed by NNS listeners. Although the basics of nuclear stress and contrastive stress are easy to teach and learn most students can emphasize important words , it is not so easy to teach and learn which words nuclear stress falls on in extended discourse.
The concepts of given and new information and contrastive stress are difficult for NNSs because they interact with the particular words as well as with the verbal and nonverbal context. Yet it fits several of the criteria for inclusion in the LFC. Second, it is hard to understand how to teach aspiration, vowel length, or nuclear stress all of which are part of the LFC and are associated with word stress without students having been taught which syllable to stress in a word.
Finally, students need to be taught word stress because it does not appear in the writing system and many are not aware of its importance. Can vowel reduction be dispensed with altogether? Certainly, if a listener is trying to hear words as they are spelled, this is true.
However, vowel reduction may be very important for the speaker. It would be very difficult for anyone to speak English at a natural speed and pronounce all the consonants, consonant clusters, and long stressed vowels of English precisely without reducing syllables, either in length or in quality.
Simplification is inevitable: A speaker can either drop consonants a typical solution for NNSs or significantly reduce unstressed syllables, especially in function words a common solution for NSs.
Well Said: Pronunciation for Clear Communication (Text/Audio Tape Package) book
In either case, the burden of speech production is lessened. Similarly, linking, which Jenkins finds not important to teach, helps students to pronounce final consonants: For most NNSs, the choice is to link or to omit.
Thus, although not reducing vowels, not using weak forms, and not linking may not affect intelligibility much among NNSs, they still can help students produce English more fluently. Also, because they are departures from the spelling system, most students are unaware of them and will not acquire them on their own at later stages of learning.
Students may struggle with pronunciation because it is closely associated with identity. Intelligibility should not be defined exclusively in relation to NSs. Although everyone states that the goal of pronunciation instruction is intelligibility, it is difficult to define and to measure. Fluency is rewarded on speaking tests, possibly more than it should be in relation to accuracy and clarity.
Obviously, more research using other paradigms to evaluate intelligibility such as mutual understanding in interactions as Jenkins has done, rather than rating tape recordings needs to be done, and NNSs need to be included as listeners.
They were practicing for the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English. It is not clear whether these results can be generalized to a larger population of less literate learners or to more formal extended discourse.
The LFC opens a debate on pronunciation targets and teaching priorities. Rather, she attempts to redefine what counts as an error by broadening pronunciation targets: As long as phonological distinctiveness and consistency are maintained, NNSs need not try to reproduce the exact phonetic qualities associated with a particular accent e.
Teachers need to establish realistic teaching goals for their particular students. It is very easy for teachers of EIL who have been trained in an ESL setting or who use textbooks that have been written primarily from a NS-as-listener perspective to accept those priorities even though they might not be applicable to their situation. ESL teachers often have mixed classes, composed of not only foreign-born students who plan to stay in the host country for the rest of their lives, but also students and professionals who will return to their home country in a few months or a few years.
Is the current strong emphasis on prosody in the best interest of all of these students? Are students shortchanged by not focusing enough on segmentals, particularly consonants? In the EIL context, some students will go on to become fully bilingual speakers or to interact frequently with NSs. Will focusing on segmentals and ignoring rhythm in produc- tion help them to make this transition?
Pronunciation teachers may disagree about what the priorities should be for various groups of students, about what is more or less teachable and learnable, but a healthy debate is needed on these topics. Hopefully, it will stimulate both empirical and classroom-based research and enable teachers to evaluate more critically the needs of their students so that they can strike the right balance between segmental and suprasegmental pronunciation teaching.
Dauer is a highly trained phonetician and ESL teacher. She has written articles on language rhythm and teaching pronunciation as well as a pronunciation textbook.
The relationship between native speaker judgments of nonnative pronunciation and deviance in segmentals, prosody, and syllable structure. Language Learning, 42, — Celce-Murcia, M. Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Dauer, R. Accurate English: A complete course in pronunciation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Longman. Derwing, T. Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s.Can you guess the source of the problem?
Remember me on this computer. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. If students are learning about focus for the first time, they will probably not use it correctly. Create a sentence for each main difference.
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