WARRINERS ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION PDF
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We all finally agreed that Earl Campbell had done extremely well. Usually it seems that each month goes more rapidly than the month before.
Arguments on both sides were most cleverly pre- sented. Although they are extremely young, these stu- dents measure up surprisingly well. Forms of Adverbs You have probably noticed that many adverbs end in -ly.
You should remember, however, that many ad- jectives also end in -ly: the daily newspaper, an early train, an only child, her untimely death, a friendly person. Moreover, words like now, then, far, wide, fast, high, already, somewhat, not, and right, which are often used as adverbs, do not end in -ly. In order to identify a word as an adverb, do not depend entirely upon the ending. Instead, ask yourself: Does this word modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb?
Does it tell when, where, how, or to what extent?
Number your paper , and list after the proper number the adverbs in each sentence. After each adverb, write the word or expression it modifies. Be able to tell whether the word or expres- sion modified is a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
People who travel abroad usually visit the Tower of London. The Tower, which was first built by William the Conqueror, is one of the most famous landmarks in London. The Tower formerly served as a fortress, and troops are still stationed in it today. A special ceremony called "The Ceremony of the Keys" is performed nightly.
The three gates of the Tower are securely locked by the Chief Warder, and an escort is especially assigned for the ceremony. The Chief Warder and the escort promptly report to the front of the Tower. The sentry immediately challenges them: "Halt!
Who comes there? The Chief Warder quickly responds, "The Keys. The sentry then asks, "Whose keys? And all the guards respond together, "Amen. Finally the Chief Warder carries the keys to the Queen's House, and they remain there for the night. The Ceremony of the Keys is not the only pag- eantry associated with the Tower.
Royal salutes are often fired from the Tower in recognition of particularly important occasions. At the coronation of a king or queen, a sixty-two- gun salute is traditionally fired. A royal birth is appropriately proclaimed by a forty-one-gun salute. The oldest residents of the Tower of London are ravens; they have probably always been at the Tower. Legend claims that the Tower will fall if the ravens ever leave. So that ravens are always there in the Tower, the guards clip their wings.
The ravens are not unhappy; their needs are well supplied by the weekly rations that they receive from the state. Rewrite each of the following sen- tences by adding at least one adverb. Avoid using the adverbs too or very. Angelo promised me that he would try to meet the train. My coat was torn during the long hike, and Bar- bara lent me her poncho.
Engineering degrees are popular with students because job opportunities are good. The Wallaces are settled into a new house, which they built by themselves. When the baseball season beg.
Ronald dribbled to his left and threw the ball into a crowded defensive zone. Visits to national monuments and parks remind us that our country has an exciting history. We returned the book to Marcella, but she had planned her report without it. Georgia O'Keeffe displayed her paintings and re- ceived the admiration of a large audience.
The recipe calls for two or three eggs, but I did not have time to download any at the store. Besides seeing the church. One can walk through the home of the parents of Anne Hathaway. This explains why his body was never moved to Westminster Abbey.
The part of speech that performs this function is the verb. Out of respect for his wish or because of fear of his curse. A verb is intransitive when it expresses action or helps to make a statement without reference to an object. The children laughed. In these examples the action passes from the doer— the subject—to the receiver of the action. See pages There are two large classes of action verbs — transitive and intransitive.
The verb is transitive. Include and underline at least five verbs that express an action that cannot be seen. Sometimes action verbs express an action that cannot be seen: A verb is a word that expresses action or otherwise helps to make a statement.
High School English Grammar and Composition
The train arrived on time. Make a list of twenty action verbs not including those listed above. Action Verbs Words such as do. A verb is transitive when the action it expresses is directed toward a person or thing named in the sentence. Words that receive the action of a transitive verb are called objects. Linking Verbs Some verbs help to make a statement.
June practices in the afternoon for an hour. A verb that can take an object is often used intransitively when the emphasis is on the action rather than on the person or thing affected by it. At the last moment. Miguel remembered his friend's warning. The rain lasted all afternoon. Some of the action verbs in the follow- ing sentences are transitive and some are intransitive.
Even good friends sometimes disagree. Carlos got a standing ovation. Write the verb of each sentence after the proper num- ber and label it as a dictionary would— v. During vacation. The club finally voted funds for the picnic. These verbs are called linking verbs or state- of-being verbs.
Architects like I. The army retreated to a stronger position. On the opening night of the class play. The festival judges selected Robert Hayden. Pei sometimes charge high fees for their designs. The movie star appeared nervous.
It may be fol-. Here are some other frequently used linking verbs: The word that follows the linking verb fills out or completes the meaning of the verb and refers to the word preceding the verb.
NOTE Many of the linking verbs listed can be used as action nonlinking verbs as well. The sum of two and four is six. You should become thoroughly familiar with the verbs in the following list.
Copy the following sentences. This soup good. One clerk became impatient. Alford is our family doctor. Did she eventually happy. Jim Dandy. All morning the baby 2. Using the linking verb given in italics. Paul lucky. She a good Sa. My face red. She always 5. Write the sentence on your paper and underline the linked words. Use a different verb for each blank. I tired. I was there. My dog's name 6.
Pine trees — tall. For each noun in the list below.
The helping verbs are in bold-faced type in the following examples. Besides all forms of the verb be. A phrase is a group of related words. My sister helped me with my math homework. A verb phrase consists of a main verb preceded by one or more helping verbs. Dolores 5. Then write another sentence using the same noun with a linking verb. They may be used as help- ing verbs sometimes called auxiliary verbs in verb phrases. Parts of verb phrases are often separated in questions.
All morning the barometer was dropping rapidly. There are twenty-five verbs and verb phrases. The intruders were probably looking for cash. Jensen always sweeps the floor first.
They should certainly be arriving any minute. They did not find anything of value. List on your paper the verbs and verb phrases in the following sentences. Her book may not have been stolen after all. He works slowly but steadily. The storm was slowly moving in. Thieves had broken into the office. Although the food tasted good. Can her sister help us? Has the girl next door been collecting the records of Jose Feliciano?
We will go to the concert if we can get tickets. Cats will stop when they have had enough.
The weather report had confidently predicted rain. Then he washes the chalkboards. Dogs will usually eat everything you give them. Your dog will become fat if you feed it too much. Some sentences contain two verbs. Be sure to include all helping verbs. Notice that they modify verbs by answering one of these questions: To what extent how long or how much? I moved forward. Adverbs may also introduce questions. After the team has had more practice. Sleep here. Did you go there? Did you go daily?
I gladly moved. Sleep well. We liked the snow. Adverbs Modifying Verbs Sometimes an adverb modifies makes more definite the meaning of a verb. Because we had always lived in the South.
You should have told us where you were going. Sleep later. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb. She scarcely sleeps. I moved immediately. Verbs and adjectives may have modifiers.
I barely moved. Adverbs may also modify other adverbs. Did you go quietly?
Did you go far? Adverbs may precede or may follow the verbs they modify. Study the adverbs in bold- faced type below. After the appropriate number. Play —. Does your sister practice —? Write ten sentences describing an in- cident at a ball game. Thomas — changes his opinions. Use at least ten adverbs modifying verbs. Following each adverb. They won —. Underline the adverbs. Could she listen —? He sighed — as he waited for the telephone to ring. Adverbs Modifying Adjectives Sometimes an adverb modifies an adjective.
I — want to send letters. The girl rowed and yelled —. I can swim —. Around the campfire we — told spooky stories. Number your paper Find and list the ten adverbs that modify adjectives in the following sentences. The adverb unusually modi- fies the adjective good. My allowance is small. The following adverbs frequently modify adjec- tives: Robert became sick. Toni seemed happy. After each adverb. The test was difficult. Plato describes the organization of a perfectly just government.
Use a different adverb in each item. Try to avoid overusing them in speaking and particularly in writing. Had Clara been safe? Give one adverb modifier for each of the italicized adjectives below. In fact. In the Republic. All citizens study music and athletics. In the second column each added word in bold-faced type is an adverb that modifies the italicized adverb. Roy is almost always hungry. Guardians who protect the laws of Plato's ideal state are trained to be always fair in their decisions.
Plato's government was for a very small state. Women receive an education exactly equal to men and fight alongside men in wars with neighboring states. A definitely important concept in the Republic is that women and men are equal.
Does this extremely brief description of Plato's state persuade you to accept or reject his ideas of government? Adverbs Modifying Other Adverbs Sometimes an adverb modifies another adverb.
She saw it recently. But his ideas are quite universal and could also apply to larger governments. Each citizen of Plato's government belongs in one of three completely distinct classes: They had met long before. They had met before. Notice in the first column below that each italicized adverb modifies a verb or an adjective.
Although they are extremely young. In order to identify a word as an adverb. Forms of Adverbs You have probably noticed that many adverbs end in -ly. Cancer research has advanced rather dramatically in the last few years. Father took the news quite calmly. Arguments on both sides were most cleverly pre- sented.
To our surprise. We all finally agreed that Earl Campbell had done extremely well. She always completely rewrites the first draft of her novels.
Usually it seems that each month goes more rapidly than the month before. You should remember. Find and list the ten adverbs that mod- ify other adverbs in the following sentences. If you handle this material very carefully. Changes in our economy have occurred somewhat rapidly 2. Pam reached the meeting too late to hear the com- plete discussion. Does it tell when. Does this word modify a verb.
The Tower. The sentry then asks. At the coronation of a king or queen. Be able to tell whether the word or expres- sion modified is a verb. Finally the Chief Warder carries the keys to the Queen's House. The sentry immediately challenges them: Who comes there? A special ceremony called "The Ceremony of the Keys" is performed nightly. And all the guards respond together.
Royal salutes are often fired from the Tower in recognition of particularly important occasions. The three gates of the Tower are securely locked by the Chief Warder.
People who travel abroad usually visit the Tower of London. The Chief Warder then calls solemnly. The Tower formerly served as a fortress.
The Ceremony of the Keys is not the only pag- eantry associated with the Tower. The Chief Warder quickly responds. The Chief Warder and the escort promptly report to the front of the Tower. Georgia O'Keeffe displayed her paintings and re- ceived the admiration of a large audience. Angelo promised me that he would try to meet the train.
Legend claims that the Tower will fall if the ravens ever leave. Visits to national monuments and parks remind us that our country has an exciting history. Engineering degrees are popular with students because job opportunities are good. I will be attend- ing games every day. We returned the book to Marcella. Ronald dribbled to his left and threw the ball into a crowded defensive zone.
The Wallaces are settled into a new house. Rewrite each of the following sen- tences by adding at least one adverb. The oldest residents of the Tower of London are ravens. A royal birth is appropriately proclaimed by a forty-one-gun salute. Avoid using the adverbs too or very. The ravens are not unhappy. When the baseball season beg. The recipe calls for two or three eggs. So that ravens are always there in the Tower. My coat was torn during the long hike. They relate nouns and pronouns to other nouns and pro- nouns.
I walked through the The book for Douglass house. I walked around the The book about house. A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in the sen- tence. The following words are commonly used as prepo- sitions. Douglass is new. I walked to the The book by Douglass house. You should study the list and learn to recog- nize the words. In the examples below. The relationship shown by the preposition is an im- portant one.
Warriner's English grammar and composition : fourth course
Commonly Used Prepositions aboard behind during about below except above beneath for across beside from after besides in against between inside along beyond into among but meaning except like around by near at concerning of before down off. These words are called prepositions.
Compound Prepositions according to in addition to next to as of in front of on account of aside from in place of out of because of in spite of owing to by means of instead of prior to The preposition and the noun or pronoun that follows combine to form a prepositional phrase.
Here are some that are fre- quently used. To distinguish between adverbs and preposi- tions. Compare the following: Look around. Recently I have learned a great many facts animals. For a discussion of prepositional phrases. Write in order after the proper number appropriate preposi- tions or compound prepositions to fill the blanks.
A whale cannot stay the water long because it must breathe air. The deafness — insects may surprise you.. There are three kinds of conjunctions: Though a whale may live a hundred years. A conjunction joins words or groups of words. Owls may see rays light which are invisible human eyes. The ears both bats and dogs can detect sounds that cannot be heard — human ears. Since you will study subordi- nating conjunctions in connection with subordinate clauses in Chapter 4.
Equipped — a type — radar. It is. The freshmen asked not only for a big celebration but also for a special holiday. Be prepared to tell whether they are correlative or coordinating conjunctions. They always con- nect items of the same kind: I have fished in the Colorado River many times. Write all the correlative and coordinating conjunctions from the same sentence after the corresponding number on your paper.
Whether I go early in the morning or late in the. Both her mother and she played tennis in high school and in college. Not only have I tried live bait. Separate the conjunctions by commas. I have fished for perch and bass. He also suggested that I download a spinning reel and a special kind of lure. The guide told me last winter that my poor luck was caused neither by my lack of skill nor by my choice of the wrong bait. These words are called interjections. Since they are unrelated to other words in the sentence.
He advised me to fish at either Lake Travis or Marshall Creek. January 2 was very cold. I caught nothing. It has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence. Using both worms and minnows. I saved my money and bought both the reel and the lure. An interjection is an exclamatory word that ex- presses emotion. An old man and his companion told me that my new lure was made only for white bass and should be used only in early spring.
They are usually followed by an exclamation point. Interjections are not connectives or modifiers. She glanced down the hall. From the context. The milk tastes sour. You must down the spoonful of medi- cine. The following summary will help you identify parts of speech in context: What you are doing is studying the context of the word—how the word is used in the sentence. The quarterback made a first down. What part of speech a word is depends upon how the word is used.
The same word may be used as different parts of speech. She made a small down payment. She glanced down. We won! It worked. You must see how the word is used in the sentence. A red light flashed. A light rain fell. Cars whizzed by.
Place beside the proper number the part of speech of the italicized word. I don't mind. We soon left. Study the use of each italicized word in the following sen- tences.
Use the following abbreviations: Be able to justify your answer by giving the use of the word in the sentence. Light the oven now. That looks beautiful. One part is missing. Underline the word. We must soon part. Lock the top drawer. Because the owl can see in the 6 dark 7 and can 8 answer questions with a few pat phrases. Look up. We drove on. We saw snow there. Pam went by air. When it bumps 14 into a tree. I shooed the hen away. That cat is smart. After each number. We climbed to the Be able to explain its use in the sentence.
Sail up the river. Number Get out of And when it staggers down the 16 middle of the highway. I slept. Write twenty short sentences using each of the following words as two different parts of speech. He did it for you. Can you top that? They 11 follow in the owl's footsteps and 12 mimic its 13 every action. They do. It may snow tonight. They followed their leader without question.
Naturally the owl is 27 no help to them when they are in the path of a fast-moving truck. Because the owl fails to see a truck that 21 is approaching. The truck proves 28 beyond question that the owl 29 is 30 not a god. The 33 foolish ani- mals are all killed by the truck. You Will learn how a given part of speech functions as part of a sentence — how a noun functions as a subject or a complement.
Chapter 2 The Parts of a Sentence Subject. In written Eng- lish. This understanding of sentence structure will help you to speak and to write more effectively. You might say some- thing like the following: Nice weather for this time of year. Your meaning here is perfectly clear. You will then be able to develop or fortify your "sentence sense. Complement As you study this chapter and do the exer- cises in it.
In your everyday conversations. As the basic unit of written expression. A sentence is a group of words expressing a com- plete thought. Florence was elected president of our club. Decide whether each group of words is a sentence or only a.
FRAGMENTS chicken and rice from August through October the president of our club doing well in school These groups of words can become sentences only when other words are added to make the thoughts complete: The rainy season lasts from August through October. Most of us are doing well in school. A sentence consists of two parts: As you turn the fragments into sentences. If the word group is a sentence. Ray turned pale The subject of the sentence is the part about which something is being said.
In the following examples. If the word group is a frag- ment. The predicate is the part which says something about the subject. After the corresponding number on your paper. In the previous examples. Do your parents mind your getting home late? The rhinoceros. Doesn't the rhinoceros charge at the slightest disturbance? Other mammals have horns in more appropriate locations.
The person in the first row I is my sister. The members of the club I arrived. The legs of a rhinoceros are rather stout and short and end in broad feet. Its eyesight is very poor. The words to the right of the vertical line make up the complete predicate.
In the desk were the red pencils. Some large animals can move very quickly. Animals such as the water buffalo and the elephant are more dangerous. Jutting from its upper lip is a large. On rainy mornings.
Its big. Notice the complete subjects. Swarms of bloodsucking parasites crawl all over its back. Add complete predicates to the follow- ing complete subjects to make complete sentences. Adjectives and preposi- tional phrases that modify the simple subject are in- cluded in the complete subject. NOTE Compound nouns. To distinguish the simple subject from the complete subject.
The simple subject is the main word or group of words in the complete subject.
From the examples above. This word names the person. Next in line was 9. Had — eaten a green persimmon? On a separate sheet of paper. The simple predicate. Lying beside the wrecked car was On the other side of the fence stood The Simple Predicate 2d. The other words in the complete predicate may affect the meaning of the verb in various ways.
The essential word or words in the complete predi- cate is always the simple predicate. In the latter. Label one of them Complete predicate and the other Verb. In the novel appear the people and scenes of Wolfe's youth. Complete predicate was sitting on the sofa Verb was sitting Hereafter throughout this book. When you are asked to pick out the simple predi- cate in a sentence. From the following sentences. North Carolina. Study the following examples. Look Homeward.
In doing so. Make two columns on your paper. If you find a verb phrase. Many writers' first novels are autobiographical.
Wolfe was later revered by the town's citizens. In the library can be found all the newspaper clippings about Wolfe's life and works.
At first an outcast in Asheville. His mother. The boyhood home of Wolfe is still standing in Asheville. A trip to the Asheville library supplies one with many facts about Wolfe. Number your paper and write each complete thought after the proper number.
Remembering that a sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The house and its furnishings are carefully de- scribed by Wolfe in Look Homeward. Now that you have learned about subjects and predi- cates. The whole town mourned the early death of its most famous son. Nellie Bly's investigative reporting showed cour- age and cleverness.
After numbering What has? Road is the subject. After you have found the verb. American women became leaders in their professions. In Melville Bissell invented the carpet sweeper. In she traveled alone around the world. Under her management as corporation president.
After the death of her husband in Her travels were reported in the New York World. Who can wade? The answer is we. What roared? The train roared. Before the equal rights movement.
The Salvation Army has always treated men and women equally. Find the subject of each of the follow- ing sentences by first finding the verb and then by asking "Who? Have you heard of Nellie Bly. Anne Bissell managed his company for forty years. Be sure to include all parts of a verb phrase. The fact is that a word in a prepositional phrase is never the subject. Cross out each of the prepositional phrases.
Girls is in the phrase of the girls. Since the prepositional phrase contains a noun or a pronoun. When you ask "Who helped? For a full discussion of prepositional phrases. You will remember that a prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun: The sub- ject of is has to be island.
My aunt on my father's side willed it to us last year.
The subject of a verb is never in a prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrases can be especially misleading when the subject follows the verb. Neither middle nor lake can be the subject because each word is part of a prepositional phrase.
That house near the railroad tracks is my home. Underline each verb twice and its subject once. Sometimes a picture on the living-room wall crashes to the floor. The oven door of the gas range habitually snaps open. Either way. The Subject in an Unusual Position Sentences that ask questions and sentences that be- gin with there or here have a word order which places the subject in an unusual position. The vibrations of the heavy freight trains cause the most damage. Every hour or so trains of all shapes and sizes roar through our backyard.
Each of the advertisers on the screen seems to speak without saying a thing. Does the novel have a happy ending? In questions that begin with a helping verb. Sentences That Ask Questions Questions often begin with a verb or with a verb helper. Yesterday at breakfast. Everything about the house except its location is very satisfactory.
You can also find the subject by turning the question into a state- ment. The thunderous clanking of the trains completely absorbs the sound of our television.
They also frequently begin with words such as what. To find the subject in such a sentence. There are many questions on American history in my book. The verb and its subject are labeled for you in the sentences below.
There is someone in the phone booth. There can be used to get a sentence started when the real sub- ject comes after the verb. Oranges are in the refrigerator. Someone is in the phone booth. Write subjects first. There are oranges in the refrigerator.
A log cabin is in the clearing. Numbering your paper When were the famous Salem witch trials? Under whose flag did Columbus sail? Listen carefully to these instructions. What kinds of schools did the colonists' children attend? Why did such a tragedy occur? Can you name the three oldest colleges in America? How did the Americans proclaim their independ- ence?
Where is Plymouth Rock? What does "squatter's rights" mean? Why were the colonists dissatisfied with England? In such sentences.
How did one travel in colonial America? Was there dissension among settlers in Massa- chusetts? How many of the leaders of the Revolution can you identify? The Understood Subject In a request or a command.
Were there many great American writers during the colonial period? In the. Did all of the colonists fight against England? You are — that is.
In the first sentence. In what area did most of the early Dutch colonists settle? Were there any sports? How much do you know about the Lost Colony? For what inventions is Benjamin Franklin re- membered? Neither Phyllis nor students is the subject of its sentence. Antony is the simple subject. They identify the person spoken to. Antony baked it.These words are called prepositions. The verb is transitive. Who comes there? Can her sister help us? There are fifty nouns in the following paragraph.
In order to identify a word as an adverb, do not depend entirely upon the ending. Plato's government was for a very small state, such as the city-states which were common in Greece in his time.
Midwest 2. The fire flickered weakly and then died.