PROFESSIONAL SEWING TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGNERS EBOOK
EBOOK. ISBN: ; Published: JUN 05, Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers is an up-to-date sewing guide that teaches fashion. WORKBOOK TO ACCOMPANY PROFESSIONAL SEWING TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGNERS EBOOK. ISBN: ; Published: JUN 19, Professional Sewing Techniques. for Designers 2ND EDITION. To Ju l es' d ea r Mu m, Mega n C l a rk, a n d S ha r o n's d ea r m o t he r, Ma r i e R ose No vo t.
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Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers is an up-to-date sewing guide that teaches fashion design students the skills they will need to. It is impossible to have good designs without having accurate quality construction skills. Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers is an up-to-date. Author: Julie Cole Pages: Publication Date Release Date: ISBN: Product Group:Book.
Not every fabric is stitched in exactly the same way; seams and hems are not stitched in a uniform way on every garment. The construction method needs to match the type and weight of fabric, as we shall see in Chapter 2. Having done that, the designer adjusts the patterns to reflect the fitting changes.
Notions can be buttons, snaps, zippers, thread, tape, elastic, ribbon, piping, interfacing, or a lace trim. The designer needs to be involved in choosing these details and therefore needs an artistic eye to harmonize them with the fabric and design. The designer also directs the choice of what basic items to use, such as the interfacing type and weight; type and length of a zipper; the type, size, and design of a button or other closure; and the color of the topstitching.
The notions and trims that are used matter, as you will learn by using this textbook. For example, the weight of the zipper needs to suit the fabric weight, and the zipper needs to be long enough so the garment will open comfortably, allowing the customer to get in and out easily.
The type of button glass, metal, wood, or leather needs to be compatible with the fabric type and suitable for laundering. The designer must allow extra time for researching notions and requesting samples, which may need to be ordered from a website.
SAMPLE WORKBOOK TO ACCOMPANY PROFESSIONAL SEWING TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGNERS
Why the Designer Needs to Know About Production Being involved in production is an aspect of the design process that fashion designers often find difficult and irksome, as they just want to get on with designing clothes and back to the design studio. How involved the designer is with production depends on the size of the company.
Designers need to keep their eyes open and look at the quality of garments being produced, and at the top of the list is quality stitching. As the collection develops, the designer may be involved with ordering fabrics and trims, an important part of the design process.
In some companies, designers may also be involved with grading patterns into larger and smaller sizes that are ready for production. When the garments are completed, quality control personnel may also call on designers for their expertise when a stitching or fabric problem occurs. The production of a collection keeps to a strict schedule, and completing your assignments by their due dates is a great way to learn how to organize your schedule.
This is excellent practice for your future responsibilities as a designer. Why the Designer Needs to Know About Functional, Structural, and Decorative Design A designer needs to address these three aspects—functional, structural, and decorative design—when designing garments.
Each of these aspects has equal value. If these areas of design are ignored, it can ultimately affect the sale of the collection. And without sales, the designer does not have a job. Garments that represent interesting designs made in quality fabrics that are comfortable to move in, and stitched with quality stitches, are what women want. This is what makes one design and designer stand out from the rest.
Coco Chanel, one of the most famous designers in fashion history, knew how important this was. Each of the garments in Figure 1. Functional Design Functional design refers to how the garment works physically on the body. This is an important aspect on which the designer needs to focus. A customer trying on a garment does not want to struggle getting in and out of the garment.
If the garment is complicated to put on, or uncomfortable in some way, or too tight to walk in, the customer will leave the fitting room and look for another brand.
Actress Cameron Diaz knows how important it is to wear a gown to the Oscars that feels like a second skin. Buttonholes need to fit comfortably over the button and not feel too tight or too loose. Snap closures need to hold the garment securely closed. All of the garments in Figures 1. The size of the pocket needs to be generous enough for the hand to rest in it, and maybe hold keys and some cash.
Notice that the pants in Figure 1. Similarly, a jacket vent allows room for the jacket to spread when a person is sitting. A customer does not want to keep tugging at the garment to keep it up all evening—this would be dysfunctional design. The zipper also needs to open from the top edge of the garment to 7 inches below the waistline so the customer can comfortably get in and out of the garment see Figure 1.
Men also do not want to feel choked or suffocated. In Figure 1. Customers should not feel restricted when sitting in the office, walking the dog, jumping for joy, running to catch the train, crouching to pick up the baby, or reaching for that hidden candy on the top kitchen shelf.
For example, the strapless dress in Figure 1. In comparison, the raincoat in Figure 1. The cut of the coat must be large enough and long enough to wear over other clothes with the neck high enough to help keep the rain out—this is an example of functional design see Figure 1. A coat underlined and lined will also have added warmth. Natural fibers such as cotton, linen, or silk are ideal choices.
Fabrics with synthetic fibers prevent crushing or wrinkling—this is how fashion meets function see Figure 1. For functional active wear the following attributes in the fabric are advantageous: heat and moisture regulated, stable when wet, good air and water vapor permeability, low water absorption, absence of dampness, quick to dry to prevent feeling cold , durable, easy to care for, and soft and pleasing to touch. However, it is not possible to achieve all these properties in one simple structure of fabric using one fiber.
This is achieved by placing the right type of fiber in the right place. Blending the fibers will not achieve this; however, fibers in a multilayer structure will. The layer closest to the skin absorbs, evaporates, and pulls moisture away from the skin. Refer to the "Stretch Seams for Knits" section of chapter 5. In comparison, the raincoat in Figure 1.
Some examples to consider: The cut of the coat must be large enough and long enough to wear over other clothes with the neck high enough to help keep the rain out—this is an example of functional design see Figure 1.
A coat underlined and lined will also have added warmth. Natural fibers such as cotton, linen, or silk are ideal choices. Fabrics with synthetic fibers prevent crushing or wrinkling—this is how fashion meets function see Figure 1.
For functional active wear the following attributes in the fabric are advantageous: However, it is not possible to achieve all these properties in one simple structure of fabric using one fiber. This is achieved by placing the right type of fiber in the right place. Blending the fibers will not achieve this; however, fibers in a multilayer structure will.
The layer closest to the skin absorbs, evaporates, and pulls moisture away from the skin. Spandex is an elastic fiber that is often mixed with other yarns to produce combi-. Refer to the "Stretch Seams for Knits" section of chapter 5.
Even though swimwear and active wear are made from fabrics with spandex, elastic also needs be applied to the garment edges to help it stay put and cling to the body. To see where swimwear elastic which is especially treated to stand up to chlorine has been applied, refer to Figure 1.
Also refer to the "Stretch Seams for Knits" section of chapter 5. Spandex is not just limited to use in knit fabrics; it can also be added to woven fabrics. For example, the jacket, pants, and skirt in Figure 1. The amount of spandex is not added in the same percentage as it is to swimwear, but a minimal amount would offer extra comfort when wearing these garments. Structural Design The second aspect the designer needs to attend to is the structural design.
Structural design refers to all the seamlines that are stitched to hold the garment together. It also refers to the. When choosing the stitches and seam finishes, the wear and tear of the garment must be considered.
The first and most important area of structural design, which is necessary to pass quality control, is to have quality permanent seam stitching. A certain number of stitches per inch securely hold the seams together. Too few stitches will not hold the seam adequately; too many stitches may pucker the fabric.
Garments made from stretch fabrics need to be stitched with stitches that stretch so the seams can stretch during wear. Decorative Design Decorative design refers to the decorative additions to the fabric surface. Decorative design is an important aspect of design because ultimately it may be what attracts a customer to download the garment—the special detail that distinguishes one garment from another.
Embroidery, lace, ribbon, bows, buckles, and buttons are just a few of the many items that can be used for decorative design. Decorative design can also encompass the vibrant fabric color or fabric texture, print, or pattern.
This is the case in Figure 1. Observe the vibrant variegated color in the jacket fabric, which is quite eye catching. The swimsuit in Figure 1. When you hear the following statement about the garment you have designed and manufactured, then you have combined functional,. Waistbands sitting comfortably on the waistline are usually correct straight and cut side of lining correct correct side side of of lining lining. Waistbands sitting on the hips are cur ved and cut in two pieces.
Waistbands can be designed in a variety of widths and styles. The underside of the cur ved waistbands can be cut wrong side of lining. A waistband can also be cut all-in-one with wrong side side of lining lining the skirt. The garment can be darted to contour the waistline, creating a high-waisted look. This style comes and goes in fashion trends. All decisions are made for waistbands based on the fabric selection.
The nature of the fabric, the drape, and the hand whether it is stiff or soft all contribute to the type of waistband to be stitched. How the fabric will be stabilized or inter faced also influences the type of waistband to be constructed. Fabric and inter facing go hand in hand, and in waistbands it is essential to choose the correct type of support for the type of waistband being designed.
Waistbands, when they are worn, should not be too tight or too loose. The structure of the waistband is extremely important. A properly constructed waistband is the first step toward lasting comfort, and what stabilizes the band is the.
The final waistband, whatever its shape, width, or style, should blend in beautifully with the whole garment. The Style I. For the techniques in this chapter, you will need waist-specific support, which includes tape measure, interfacing and elastic, marking pen, scissors, pins, bodkin, hooks and bars, hooks and eyes, buttons, and appropriate needle and thread to match the garment. Think ahead—order now.
Before applying waistbands, darts should be sewn and pressed, seams sewn, and zippers applied. What Is a Waistband? A waistband is a band of fabric, usually fully interfaced, seamed to the waistline of skirts or pants and fastened to hold the garment firmly around the waist.
Waistbands hold the garment in the proper position on the body. Ease is determined by the designer at the patternmaking stage of construction. The waistband must match the skirt at the waistline see Figures A waistband can be both functional and decorative. In its functional use, a waistband finishes the edge of a garment and provides support on the body.
In its decorative use, the style and eye appeal of the garment are enhanced. The waistband can open at the center. The Three Types of Waistbands Waistbands fall into three categories: The waistband should fit the waist snugly yet comfortably.
The designer may be tempted to cinch the waist to create a slimmer look, but this usually has the opposite effect and forces the stomach to bulge out. This garment would be uncomfortable to wear. It is best to base the waistband on the waist measurement and the amount of wearing ease preferred by the designer.
Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers
The length of the waistband should equal the waist measurement plus ease and, if using an underlap or overlap, at least an additional 1 inch. The underlap is the extension of the waistband on the center-back edge see Figure The underlap is a place to sew garment fasteners. The overlap see Figure Not every waistband needs an overlap, but it does need an underlap.
The contoured waistband in Figure The waistband is stitched to the garment after the zipper has been inserted if using one and the seams have been completed. Straight Waistbands—One Piece Most straight waistbands are cut in one piece with a foldline in the middle.
Straight waistbands can be wide or narrow but on average are cut 2 inches wide, plus seam allowances for. It cannot be said enough how important it is to determine the proper stabilizer for the waistband being constructed.
Sample several choices of stabilizers to determine the interfacing that best suits the fabric. To stitch the straight waistband: To calculate the waistband length, measure as indicated in Figure The waistband should be interfaced for longlasting wear and to stay in shape.
Select a weight of interfacing that will not overpower the fabric, yet will provide body and support to the waistband. Or use slotted waistband interfacing, specifically designed for waistbands. Stitch the straight waistband to the waistline seam by matching the notched edges see Figure The unnotched edge is folded under on the seam allowance, edge pressed, and trimmed to reduce bulk at the waistline before finishing by hand slipstitching or stitching-in-theditch see Figure The unnotched edged can also be serge finished to further reduce bulk.
Pin baste and stitch the correct side of the waistband to the correct side of the garment waistline see Figure Stitch the extension from the notch to the top of the waistband; stitch the other side of the waistband see Figure Turn the waistband to the inside of the garment and slipstitch the folded, pressed edge of the waistband to the seamline.
Complete the waistband with your closure of choice. Remove the stitching, and adjust the amount needed to remove the rippling. Take time to measure the amount, using your tape measure or your seam gauge.
Hand-Finished Application To attach a waistband without edgestitching or topstitching, follow the direction for applying the straight waistband.
To stitch a hand-finished waistband:. Topstitched Application Attaching the waistband by topstitching it on the correct side changes the order of the application.
Topstitching is meant to be seen, so the stitch length is usually extended to 3. Often a contrasting thread type or color can be used to highlight this stitching, which is done from the correct side of the garment. This type of stitching must be straight, even, and without obvious starts and stops.
If this skill has not been mastered, consider using edgestitching in place of topstitching. To stitch the topstitched waistband: Pin baste the correct side of the waistband to the wrong side of the garment waistline, matching notches see Figure Double-check that the waistband is pinned correctly so it will actually be turned to the correct side of the garment.
Also check that the extension is on the correct end see Figure Stitch the waistband to the waistline. Trim, grade, and clip the seam allowances. Press the waist seam allowance flat; then press the seam allowances up into the waistband see Figure Fold the waistband ends so the correct sides are together; stitch the left side from the notch to the top of the waistband; stitch the right side.
Trim the corners see Figure Flip the waistband to the correct side of the garment see Figure Place the folded, pressed edge of the waistband slightly over the waistline stitching, just enough to be caught in the topstitching.
Do not stretch this edge when pressing or it will not lie flat when topstitched. Pin baste the folded edge to the seamline. From the correct side of the waistband, topstitch the folded edge to the waistline see Figure With the needle down in the fabric, lift the presser foot, pivot, and continue topstitching the waistband, extension, and top of the waistband see Figure Complete the waistband with appropriate fasteners for the garment.
Straight Waistbands—Two Pieces A straight waistband is cut in two pieces when the waistband is a decorative shape. For example, the decorative scallop-edge waistband would be stitched as a two-piece waistband in Figure. A two-piece waistband eliminates bulk by using a lighter-weight fabric or lining for the under waistband and adds comfort if the fabric is heavily textured or itchy. Accurate sewing and careful clipping, trimming, and grading contribute to the success of this type of waistband.
Complete the waistband with the appropriate closure. To stitch the two-piece waistband: Determine the finished waistband length, including the extension. Remove seam allowances from fusible interfacing before applying to the waistband to reduce bulk in the seam allowances see Figure Stitch the upper and under waistbands together along the top edge; press and understitch see Figure Pin baste the upper waistband to the correct side of the waistline; stitch see Figure Trim and grade the seam allowance; press toward the waistband.
Stitch the straight end and extension upper waistband to the under waistband, trim ends, and turn waistband correct side out. Secure the under waistband to the waistline seam using any of the following techniques: The waistline can be finished by using bias binding to provide a narrow edge finish.
Decide if this will be contrasting fabric or the same fabric used for the garment. The technique described here is effective for single or double binding. In this section the bias binding will be stitched as single binding. To stitch bias binding at the waist: Apply zipper, and sew darts and seams before stitching bias onto waistline.
Stitch twill tape around waistline to stabilize the waistline. In Figure To stitch the twill tape, refer to Figure 3. Place correct sides of garment waist edge and binding together and stitch in place. The seam allowance for stitching is the finished required width of the binding.
Press the seam up into the binding after stitching.
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Turn each end of the seam allowance in toward the binding, and turn the remaining bias over to the back, encasing all the raw edges. Finish the binding by hand slipstitching the edge of the bias binding to the machine stitches at the waistline see Figure For heavier, bulky fabrics such as denim or wool, serge one edge of the binding see Figure Turn the binding over, encasing the raw edges. Leave the serged edge flat—do not turn under. Stitch-in-the-ditch from the correct side of the garment see Figure Curved or Contoured Waistbands A contoured waistband is shaped to coincide with the contour of the upper hip.
Belt loops are often a feature of this waistband. When the designer plans the waistband, he or she determines the width and the number of belt loops and their placement. Firm interfacing, staystitching, and twill tape are necessary to stabilize the contoured waistband.
The fabric and the type of interfacing need to work together to support the shape required. Take time to sample different types and weights of interfacing before constructing this type of waistband. Refer to. Chapter 3 for further information on appropriate stabilizers. Follow Figures The waistband stitched in this section has a fly-front zipper and a contoured waistband with a front extension , and belt loops with.
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To stitch the contoured waistband: Cut four waistbands and notch see Figure Cut four interfacing pieces from a lighter-weight interfacing using the garment waistband pattern.
The Hong Kong finish is bias cut in Figure 4. Fuse the interfacing to the waistband pieces see Figures Join the band center-back seams see Figures This is now the upper band.
Finish the other waistband lower edge with a Hong Kong finish see Figure Stitch the Hong Kong finish from the center front, notch to the other end of the waistband. Leave a 1-inch excess beyond the center-front as indicated in Figure Refer to Figures 4. This is now the under band. If you have decided to use belt loops, position them on the upper waistband; machine baste the loops at top and bottom edges of the waistband, as indicated in Figure Understitch the under band see Figure Place the wrong sides of the garment and upper band together, match center front, center back, and notches together; pin the waistband in place.
Stitch the waistband to the garment see Figure T hen stitch the extension and straight edge of the waistband this may differ depending on the design , as shown in Figure Clip the corners, turn, and press. Tuck the excess Hong Kong finish under the band and pin see Figure From the correct side of the garment, pin and stitchin-the-ditch to attach the under waistband. The waistband on the pants in Figure The button helps to hold the waistband firmly to the body, as shown in Figure Waistline Stay A waistline stay in a strapless dress or a gown helps keep the waistline from stretching and relieves stress and strain on the closure.
Zippered waistlines close more easily if they are. Grosgrain ribbon makes an excellent stay, as it does not stretch. Cut a piece of grosgrain ribbon 3 inches longer than a firm waist measurement.
Sew hooks on one end of the ribbon stay and round eyes on the other see Figure Position the ribbon on the waistline with the ends meeting at the zipper and overlapping, as illustrated in Figure Fasteners should face the zipper tape. Machine stitch the stay to the waistline seam allowance.
Leave the stay free for 2 inches on either side of the zipper to provide necessary room to close the hooks and eyes. Extended Waistbands A waistband can also be cut all-in-one with skirt or pants and darted to provide contour, but this is a style that comes and goes in fashion. A more familiar and commonly used style of waistband that is cut-in-one with the garment is the foldover elastic waistband. The cut-in-one-with-the garment waistband is an extension of the garment.
The shape at the top of the waistband must be equal in width to the area of the body it will meet. The facing of the extended waistband must also match the upper edge of the extended waistband.
All of these requirements must be addressed by the designer at the patternmaking stage. Careful, accurate stitching of the seams results in the extended waistband width fitting the body width when complete.
Darted, Extended Waistband To stitch the darted, extended waistband:. Stitch, slash open, and press the darts see Figure Interface the facing; if using a lining, leave the facing edge unfinished see Figure Twill tape can be added to stabilize the upper edge of the extended waistline. Install the zipper. S TAY 5. Stitch the facing to extended waistline upper edge, press the seam allowances, and understitch see Figure Turn the facing inside the garment; press.
If using a lining, stitch the completed skirt lining to the lower edge of the facing see Figure Or, secure the ends of the facing to the zipper tape, seam allowances, and darts if not using a lining.
Hand stitch a hook and eye to the top edge above the zipper see Figure Elastic Waistband Elastic waistbands fall into two categories— elastic inserted into a stitched-down casing or. An elastic waistband requires that ease must be added at the pattern drafting stage for the garment to fit over the hips, which adds considerable fabric to the waist area—not always a flattering look in a straight skirt.
For example, full circle skirts or dirndl skirts, which are gathered, may benefit from an elastic waistband, but these are styles that come and go in fashion. Follow the directions below for the style that best suits the skirt and pant fabric.
Elastic waistbands can be: A large safety pin can be used as well if a bodkin is not available. Use whatever fits safely into the casing. Topstitched Casing To stitch the topstitched casing or fold-over casing: Cut the determined length of elastic equal to the measurement of the waist, less 2 to 4 inches. Covering the Inner Surface Chapter I really like this book and currently use it for all of my classes. Techniques are explained in the context of how a designer must think and apply information.
The strengths are that it provides a good overview of many sewing techniques and procedures. It is one of the two best basic sewing instruction books that I have found.
The accompanying sample workbook is another major strength. Very pleasant looking book, so it encourages the students to use the book. It gives them a vision of how sewing adds to their ability to design a correct garment and what they must understand when sewing.
Academic Fashion Careers and Portfolios: Fashion Color: Fashion Computer-Aided Design: Fashion Construction: Fashion Draping Ethics and Law: Fashion Production and Manufacturing: Fashion Research Methods: Hardback Edition: Fairchild Books Illustrations: Recommended Keep me on this site.Stitching Order wrong side of fusible interfacing wrong side of fusible interfacing wrong wrong side side of of fusible fusible interfacing interfacing.
Cut a firm, non-roll elastic 1 inch wide and equal in length to the waist measurement. Leather Leather garments can be constructed with onepiece tailored waistbands or faced waistbands. Then ask yourself the following questions to critique the quality of your waistband construction stitching: The fabric surface can have a texture; large bold print; stripe; check; one-way pattern, or have a furry pile.
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