OXFORD HANDBOOK OF FORENSIC MEDICINE PDF
Jonathan P. Wyatt, Tim Squires, Guy Norfolk, and Jason Payne-James. This resource acts as a practical guide for clinical forensic specialists. It contains basic background information on the legal aspects of medicine for doctors, nurses and medical students. Oxford Handbook of Forensic Medicine. Written for specialists and non- specialists alike, this book will appeal to practising forensic scientists, as well as lawyers. Oxford Handbook of Forensic Medicine by Jonathan P. Wyatt, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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OXFORD MEDICAL PUBLICATIONS Oxford Handbook of Emergency of Expedition and Wilderness Medicine Oxford Handbook of Forensic Medicine Oxford. Having trained in Emergency Medicine, Jonathan Wyatt undertook two years of research in Forensic Medicine which resulted in an MD from the University of. Köp Oxford Handbook of Forensic Medicine av Jonathan P Wyatt, Tim Squires, Guy PDF-böcker lämpar sig inte för läsning på små skärmar, t ex mobiler.
These half-lives represent mere estimations, since several variables that should be described in the forensic medical report must be considered when documenting the presence or not of semen in sexual assault cases [ 22 , 29 , 31 ]: 1 the type of practice and circumstances e.
Observation of spermatozoa under an optical microscope e.
However, since these techniques do not lead to the identification of the perpetrator and biological material is lost to perform smears, some authors do not recommend this procedure. The absence of spermatozoa may occur if the suspects are azoospermic or vasectomized or if semen stains are dry [ 24 , 32 ]. Under an optical microscope, the Florence Iodine FI test is used for seminal fluid identification by detecting the presence of choline through the addition of an iodine based reagent, which produces characteristic brown choline periodide crystals.
In a recent study, Hardinge and colleagues [ 33 ] observed that prostate-specific antigen PSA is much more sensitive but less specific than the FI test to confirm the presence of seminal fluid.
Seminal acid phosphatase AP : this enzyme is present in semen and for positivity, the presence of spermatozoa is not needed since it is a prostatic enzyme. In postpubertal girls' vagina or cervix, the possibility to register elevated AP levels ranges from 24 hours [ 24 ] to 72 hours after ejaculation [ 22 , 29 ]. AP levels are elevated for a much shorter time in mouth perhaps only 6 hours and in the rectum less than 24 hours , but only estimates are available [ 34 ]. On the other hand, in spite of an elevated level of AP being a specific indicator of recent sexual intercourse and ejaculation, its use as evidence is somewhat limited due to the existence of an isoenzyme in low levels in postpubertal vaginal fluid and female urine [ 22 ].
The presence and concentration of AP in prepubertal girls is unknown. Analytical techniques to quantify AP e. Indeed, the results of the Brentamine colorimetric reaction may be difficult to interpret due to the interference of fabric colors and therefore may lead to false negative results. Prostate-specific antigen PSA : it is a serine protease produced by prostatic epithelial cells found in many tissues e.
Although PSA is not tissue and gender specific, in ASA cases, the interpretation of the results should not pose a significant problem due to its low concentrations in nonprostatic fluids [ 36 — 38 ]. PSA can be found up to 48 hours in postpubertal girls' vagina or cervix [ 24 ]. PSA is considered one of the most sensitive methods for semen detection and can be applied for azoospermic individuals. This biological material transports epithelial cells from buccal mucosa which contains DNA [ 3 , 4 , 23 , 39 , 40 ].
Cigarette filters, bottles, or cans of soft drinks are likely to lead to the identification of the perpetrator. Stamps and envelopes are less likely to provide DNA that could lead to a perpetrator because they are usually now self-adhesive and therefore few people lick them anymore.
Some studies argue that perpetrator's DNA may be detected in the victim's oral cavity up to 1 hour after intense kissing [ 41 ]. Nevertheless, collection within this period is very difficult to accomplish, since the victims are presented later for FME and usually wash their mouth. Thus the collection of oral fluid must be performed as soon as possible for victim's hygiene and comfort but also for avoiding loss or destruction of this sensitive evidence that normally presents low amounts of DNA.
It should be born in mind that the pubic hair transferred during intercourse, victim being in the dorsal decubitus position, is minimal even if samples are collected during a short time afterwards, as previously demonstrated [ 45 ]. The fingernail hyponychium is an isolated area where evidence may accumulate and can provide a valuable source of evidential material for investigation.
During the course of a sexual assault, trace amounts of skin especially if the victim scratched the perpetrator , body fluids, hairs, fibers, and vegetation may collect under the nails of either the victim or perpetrator [ 42 , 43 , 47 ].
Oxford Handbook of Forensic Medicine PDF Free Download
The persistence of foreign DNA did not tend to last beyond 6 h [ 42 ]. Evidence Preservation Evidence preservation aims to avoid its destruction, contamination, or loss.
Moreover in order to prevent DNA degradation, the forensic examiner must correctly select the type of material used for collection and storage e.
Contamination For DNA studies, one of the greatest laboratory barriers is the contamination of genetic material from other sources e. Contamination may occur during the sexual contact e. In order to avoid it, examiners should take special precautions to prevent cross-contamination between evidences [ 7 , 29 , 50 ]. For this purpose, it is important [ 4 , 54 ] to work under aseptic conditions to avoid microbial contamination; to always use disposable supplies to ensure individual protection e.
Loss In many ASA cases, the evidence is recovered in very low amounts.
Consequently, two issues must be weighed: the number of swabs to be performed during the collection for each evidence and the pertinence or not of doing semen smears for spermatozoa observation under optical microscope. The number of swabs performed per body area is important for financial reasons but also due to evidence concentration in each swab. Hochmeister and Ferrel [ 49 ] consider that one swab per item of evidence is more than enough. Others advise to collect at least two swabs for the same item of evidence [ 22 , 29 , 55 , 56 ].
The medical examiner should justify the adopted procedure in the FME report and consider the following objectives in the decision making process: 1 ability to conduct independent analysis for counterproof; 2 collection of all biological evidence available; and 3 facility to collect evidence.
Therefore, it is important to highlight how each technique meets these objectives [ 6 ]: One swab: it is a rapid technique but does not guarantee that the entire evidence is collected for laboratory analysis. It is particularly useful in the presence of evidence with limited quantity. Moreover, if counterproof is required, two situations may be possible: 1 half the cotton swab could be preserved in the laboratory allowing one to perform a new analysis that will begin from extraction of DNA; 2 the entire swab is used in the first forensic analysis most common situation and counterproof analysis must be made from DNA previously extracted, ensuring that both analyses begin from the same DNA sample.
Two swabs simultaneously: in this case, biological material will be divided into two swabs, which could reduce the success of the laboratory analysis. Furthermore, nothing can guarantee that the two swabs, even used together, have the same evidence quantity, which for some authors seems to be relevant for legal issues.
The evidence is rapidly collected and allows the use of the second swab for counterproof [ 29 , 55 , 56 ]. In anogenital area this technique is only performed in adult or postpubertal victims. It should be considered when there is enough biological material available e.
This technique aims to collect the largest quantity of evidence available. It is not rapid and there is no guarantee of equality of the two swabs the second swab may have much lower concentration of the evidence , reducing usefulness in counterproof.
In spite of these limitations, this technique has been widely reported in the literature for the collection of various different biological samples e.
In the majority of cases, semen smears for spermatozoa observation under optical microscope should not be performed, except in very specific circumstances, which should be detailed in the FME report.
The following reasons justify their uselessness [ 49 ]: Many variables impact the semen motility and its observation by the examiner does not give a precise estimation of the time of the sexual contact.
Due to the increasing number of vasectomized individuals, a semen smear has become a less effective screening tool to prove sexual contact. DNA analysis will be performed in the forensic laboratory regardless of the examiner's findings on a smear.
Precious DNA evidence studies may be wasted by preparing a smear. Evidence Management Good evidence management must properly ensure procedures in the sequence ranging between selecting and collection, packing, sealing, labeling, and insertion into the kit, its storage, preservation and transportation, and reception by the forensic laboratory, always ensuring the compliance of chain of custody.
Evidence Selection The details of the sexual assault history and the physical exam should guide the examiner for evidence collection [ 3 , 4 ]. During the physical examination, an alternate light source may assist the detection of some findings that may need special techniques for visualization such as injuries which may be invisible to the naked eye [ 57 , 58 ].
Lamps are also an effective alternative to chemical-based screening tests. Semen is very fluorescent in nature and the fluorescence can be observed on dark as well as light textiles when illuminated with an intense UV light, without the need for using colored goggles. To detect semen the standard Wood's lamp wavelength nm , often used during SAS examinations, has been shown to be ineffective since several creams and ointments fluoresce in a similar manner to semen [ 59 ].
Instead, other light sources, with appropriate filters [ 59 ], may be used with the understanding that relatively fresh semen might be more easily observed with the naked eye than with an alternative light source [ 29 ]. Application has been possible on skin surfaces and vaginal, anal, and pharyngeal mucosa.
The Polilight has also been considered a useful light source to detect biological samples such as semen, oral fluid, and bloodstains e.
Evidence and Reference Sample Collection In ASA cases, biological fluids collected on cotton-tipped swabs are the most important items of trace evidence. For this reason, it is advisable to collect any evidence relevant to the case even though only some samples may be subjected to laboratory analysis [ 7 , 50 ]. The technique and materials used to collect evidence depend on the type of evidence and its support. For DNA analysis, swabs are usually preferred to collect semen and other fluids, but different techniques exist for hair collection, for example.
The presence of inhibitors is another limitation that sometimes examiners have to face [ 16 ]. Indeed, substances such as indigo dye present in denim affect the PCR amplification and therefore compromise the DNA results [ 63 , 64 ].
Swab Techniques Depending on the purpose, swabs of different design, shape, and size are commercially available and should be judiciously selected. Synthetic swabs e. Generally, the collection should be done by gently to prevent exfoliation of the victim's own epithelial cells rubbing in a circular motion for 15 seconds, a restricted area of the mucosa or skin, from the periphery to the center and rotating the swab.
In the following, specific collection procedures are briefly outlined according to surface type examined [ 3 , 46 ]: For dry surfaces e. Therefore, visualization of spermatozoa or vaginal epithelial cells from swabs is more prone to be successful, especially if the number is reduced.
Curated educational resources for forensic medicine/ pathology
The same is not true for certain saline solutions and tap water due to electrolytes content and pH [ 65 ]. To collect evidence from underneath fingernails, a damp, small, and thin tip swab should be used to be able to reach under the fingernails. All collected swabs should be air-dried at room temperature for a minimum of one hour [ 22 ]. To accelerate drying, a cold hair-dryer not heat to dry swabs or a swab dryer may be used [ 22 ] and the chosen procedure should be described in the FME report.
Pergamon Press, Oxford. Professor Polson has achieved considerable status as a practitioner and author in this field and he is now joined by a co-author, Professor D. Gee who succeeded him in the Chair of Forensic Pathology at Leeds. The book has been extensively revised and no longer purports to be comprehensive; rather is it a reference for post-graduate students and practising forensic pathologists, but it is not encyclopaedic in its coverage of all aspects of forensic science.
There are two main sections, the lirst and larger being devoted to forensic pathology and the second to some aspects of the law relating to medicine.
The latter is based on the English legal system and therefore is largely of regional interest, but it also discusses such general topics as consent to examination and treatment, medical negligence and the medical witness.
Several topics have been deleted from the section on forensic pathology allowing expansion of other sections. Blood stains and grouping, starvation and neglect have been withdrawn.
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In their place new chapters on cruelty to children, sudden death, the scene of death and anaesthetic deaths have been added. All of these are necessary topics in a reference manual and their inclusion has improved the usefulness of this edition.Julia Smedley. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Mar; 3 Critical Care Surgery.
Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, The alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry.
In Figure 1 we present an example of a request form for Forensic Genetics in case of sexual assault. To find the perpetrator, DNA samples from the entire male population, more than 4, aged from 17 to 34, of the town were collected. Charles Guest. Breast Surgery. Development of the Nervous System.
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