EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT PDF
Thoughts. INTRODUCTION. The origin of management in the organized way World War I saw a marked development in evolution of management concepts. The Evolution of Management. Thought. Overview. The vast majority of workers are employed by some sort of an organization. They travel to work each morning . EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT. I. Pre-Scientific Management Era. II. Scientific Management weinratgeber.info Henri Fayol. Henry Lawrence Grantt. III.
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the evolution of business and management thought. The four-volume management theory across time; provide a historical perspective for understanding. weinratgeber.info~tgrodsky/admn/weinratgeber.info History of Management Thought. The Evolution of Management Theory. Upon completing this. Evolution of Management Thought PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Evolution-of-management-thought-pdf.
Third principle is elements of scientific management. The main constituents of scientific management are work study involving work important and work measurement using method and time study, standardization of tools and equipment for workmen and improving working conditions, scientific Selection, placement and training of workers by a centralized personal department. Fourth principle is bilateral mental revolution. Scientific management involves a complete mental change of employees towards their work, toward their fellow-men and toward their employers.
Mental revolution is also necessary on the part of management's side, the foreman, the superintendent, the owners and board of directions. Fifth principle is financial incentives. In order to encourage workers to give better performance, Taylor introduced differential piece-rate system. According to Taylor, the wage should be based on individual performance and on the position which a worker occupies.
Economy is other principle of management devised by Taylor. According to him, maximum output is achieved through division of labour and specialization. Scientific Management concentrates on technical aspects as well as on profit and economy.
For this purpose, techniques of cost estimates and control should be adopted. Taylor concluded that science, not rule of thumb, Harmony, not discord, Cooperation and not individualism, Maximum output, in place of restricted output. The main objective of Administrative management is to describe the management process and philosophy of management. In contradiction of scientific management, which deals mainly with jobs and work at individual level of scrutiny, administrative management gives a more universal theory of management.
Henry Fayol's Administrative Management — : Henri fayol is known as the father of modern Management. He was popular industrialist and victorious manager. Fayol considered that good management practice falls into certain patterns that can be recognized and analysed. From this basic perspective, he devised a blueprint for a consistent policy of managers one that retains much of its force to this day. Fayol provided a broad analytical framework of the process of management.
He used the word Administration for Management. Foyal categorized activities of business enterprise into six groups such as Technical, Financial, Accounting, Security, and Administrative or Managerial.
He stressed constantly that these managerial functions are the same at every level of an organization and is common to all firms. He wrote General and Industrial Management. His five function of managers were plan, organize, command, co-ordinate, and control. Principal of administrative management: 1. Division of labour, 2. Discipline, 4.
Unity of command, 5. Unity of direction, 6.
The Evolution of Management Thought, 7th Edition
Subordination of individual interests to general interest, 7. Remuneration of personnel, 8. Centralization, 9. Scalar chain, Order, Equity, Stability of tenure, Initiative and Esprit de corps union of strength. These 14 principles of management serve as general guidelines to the management process and management practice.
His principles of management are described below. Division of work: This is the principle of specialization which is detailed by economists as an important to efficiency in the utilization of labour.
Fayol goes beyond shop labour to apply the principle to all kinds of work, managerial as well as technical. Authority and responsibility: In this principle, Fayol discovers authority and responsibility to be linked with the letter, the consequence of the former and arising from the latter.
Discipline: This discipline denotes "respect for agreements which are directed at achieving obedience, application, energy and the outward marks of respect". Fayol declares that discipline requires good superiors at all levels, clear and fair agreement, and judicious application of penalties.
Unity of command: This is the principle that an employee should receive orders from one superior only. Unity of direction: Fayol asserted that unity of direction is the principle that each group of activities having the same objective must have one head and one plan. As distinguished from the principle of unity of command, Fayol observes unity of direction as related to the functioning of personnel.
Subordination of individual interest to general interest: In any group the interest of the group should supersede that of the individual. When these are found to differ, it is the function of management to reconcile them. Remuneration of personnel: Fayol recognizes that salary and methods of payment should be fair and give the utmost satisfaction to worker and boss. Centralization: Fayol principle of centralization refers to the extent to which authority is concentrated or dispersed in an enterprise.
Individual circumstances will determine the degree of centralization that will give the best overall yield. Scalar chair: Fayol believe of the scalar chair as a line of authority, a 'Chain of Superiors" from the highest to the lowest ranks and held that, while it is an error of subordinate to depart 'needlessly' from lines of authority, the chain should be short-circuited when scrupulous following of it would be detrimental.
Order: Breaking this principle into 'Material order' and 'Social Order', Fayol thinks of it as the simple edge of "a place for everything everyone , and everything everyone in its his place". This is basically a principle of organization in the arrangement of things and persons. Equity: Fayol perceives this principle as one of eliciting loyalty and devotion from personnel by a combination of kindliness and justice in managers dealing with subordinates. Stability of tenure of personnel: Finding that such instability is both the cause and effect of bad management, Fayol indicated the dangers and costs of unnecessary turnover.
Initiative: Initiative is envisaged as the thinking out and execution of a plan. Since it is one of the "Keenest satisfactions for an intelligent man to experience", Fayol exhorts managers to "Sacrifice Personal Vanity" in order to permit subordinates to exercise it.
Esprit de corps: This is the principle that 'union is strength' an extension of the principle of unity of command. Fayol here emphasizes the need for teamwork and the importance of communication in obtaining it.
Bureaucratic management denotes to the perfect type of organization. Principal of Bureaucracy include clearly defined and specialized functions, use of legal authority, hierarchical form, written rules and procedures, technically trained bureaucrats, appointment to positions based on technical expertise, promotions based on competence and clearly defined career paths.
The German sociologist, Max Weber recognized as father of modern Sociology who appraised bureaucracy as the most logical and structure for big organization. With his observation in business world, Weber summarized that earlier business firms were unproductively managed, with decisions based on personal relationships and faithfulness. He proposed that a form of organization, called a bureaucracy, characterized by division of labour, hierarchy, formalized rules, impersonality, and the selection and promotion of employees based on ability, would lead to more well-organized management.
Weber also argued that authoritative position of managers in an organization should be based not on tradition or personality but on the position held by managers in the organizational hierarchy. Max Weber devised a theory of bureaucratic management that emphasized the need for a firmly defined hierarchy governed by clearly defined regulations and lines of authority. He considered the perfect organization to be a bureaucracy whose activities and objectives were reasonably thought out and whose divisions of labour were clearly defined.
Weber also believed that technical capability should be emphasized and that performance evaluations should be made completely on the basis of merit. Presently, it is considered that bureaucracies are huge, impersonal organizations that put impersonal competence ahead of human needs.
Like the scientific management theorists, Weber sought to advance the performance of socially important organizations by making their operations predictable and productive. Although we now value innovation and flexibility as much as efficiency and predictability, Weber's model of bureaucratic management evidently advanced the development of vast corporations such as Ford.
Lecture 2 -The Evolution of Management Thought.pdf
Bureaucracy was a particular pattern of relationships for which Weber saw great promise. Although bureaucracy has been successful for many companies, in the competitive global market of the s organizations such as General Electric and Xerox have adopted bureaucracy, throwing away the organization chart and replacing it with ever-changing constellations of teams, projects, and alliances with the goal of unleashing employee creativeness.
Chester I. Barnard: Chester Barnard also devised components to classical theory such as Follett that would be further developed in later schools. Barnard, who became president of New Jersey Bell in , used his work experience and his wide reading in sociology and philosophy to devise theories about organizations. Barnard stated that people join in formal organizations to accomplish such goals that cannot be fulfilled by working alone. But as they follow the organization's goals, they must also gratify their individual needs.
Barnard came to conclusion that an enterprise can operate efficiently and survive only when the organization's goals are kept in balance with the aims and needs of the individuals working for it. Barnard denotes a principle by which people can work in stable and mutually constructive relationships over time. Barnard believed that individual and organizations purposes must be in balance if managers understood an employee's zone of indifference that is, what the employee would do without questioning the manager's authority.
Apparently, the more activities that fell within an employee's zone of indifference the smoother and more cooperative an organization would be.
Barnard also believed that managers had a duty to inspire a sense of moral purpose in their employees. To do this, they would have to learn to think beyond their narrow self-interest and make an ethical promise to society.
Although Barnard emphasized the work of administrative managers, he also focused substantial attention on the role of the individual employee as the basic strategic factor in organization. Modern Management Approaches Behavioural Approach: Numerous theorists developed the behavioural approach of management thought as they observed weaknesses in the assumptions of the classical approach.
The classical approach emphasized efficiency, process, and principles. Some management scholars considered that this thought ignored important aspects of organizational life, particularly as it related to human behaviour. Therefore the behavioural approach concentrated on the understanding of the factors that affect human behaviour at work. This is an improved and more matured description of human relations approach. Behavioural Scientists hold the classical approach as highly mechanistic, which finds to degrade the human spirit.
They choose more flexible organization structures and jobs built around the capabilities and talent of average employees.
Major Classification of Management Approaches and Their Contributors
The behavioural approach has based the numerous principles. Decision-making is done in a sub-optimal manner, because of practical and situational constraints on human rationality of decision-making. The behaviourists attach great weight age on participative and group decision-making. Behavioural Scientists promote self-direction and control instead of imposed control. Behavioural Scientists believe the organization as a group of individuals with certain goals.
Behavioural scientists perceive that the democratic-participative styles of leadership are enviable, the autocratic, task oriented styles may also be appropriate in certain situation.
Behavioural scientists propose that different people react differently to the same situation. No two people are exactly similar and manager should tailor his attempts to influence his people according to their needs. Behavioural scientists identify that organizational variance and change are predictable.
Approach of Mary parker follett: Mary Parker Follett developed classic structure of the classical school. However, she initiated many new elements particularly in the area of human relations and organizational structure. In this, she introduced trends that would be further developed by the talented behavioural and management science schools.
Follett was persuaded that no one could become a whole person except as a member of a group. Human beings grew through their relationships with others in organizations. In fact, she explained management as "the art of getting things done through people. She believed in the power of the group, where individuals could combine their diverse talents into something bigger.
Moreover, Follett's "holistic" model of control took into account not just individuals and groups, but the effects of such environmental factors as politics, economics, and biology. Follett's model was significant precursor of the idea that management meant more than just what was happening inside a particular organization.
Maslow's theory of self-actualisation: His theory is recognized as Hierarchy of Needs. It is illustrated in a pyramid and elucidates the different levels and importance of human's psychological and physical needs.
It can be used in business by managers to better understand employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow's hierarchy include physiological needs food and clothing , safety needs job security , social needs friendship , self-esteem, and self-fulfilment or actualisation.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behaviour because it explores a worker's motivation. Some people are prepared to work just for money, because of friends, or the fact that they are respected by others and recognized for their good work. The final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualization" of the full personal potential takes place.
In the organizational situation, if an employee's lower need on the hierarchy is not met, then the higher ones are ignored. For example, if employees are worried that they will be fired, and have no job security, they will be concerned about friendship and respect. Douglas McGregor theory of management suggested that there is need to motivate employees through authoritative direction and employee self-control and he introduced the concept of Theory X and Y.
Evolution of Management Thoughts (Managerial Function)
Theory X is a management theory focused more on classical management theory and assumes that workforce need a high amount of supervision because they are inherently lazy. It presupposes that managers need to motivate through coercion and punishment.
Theory Y is a management theory that assumes employees are determined, self-motivated, exercise self-control, and generally enjoy mental and physical work duties.
Theory Y is in line with behavioural management theories. Theory X and Theory Y relates to Maslow's hierarchy of needs in how human behaviour and motivation is the main priority in the workplace in order to maximize output.
Discuss why knowledge of the evolution of management theories is important to managers. Explain the contributions ebook kindle pdf the ragged trousered philanthropists by robert tressell of the following: a Classical schools of. Keywords: Evolution Management theories Literature review. On management service practice as well as on management thought up to the.
Keywords: evolutionary theory, management theory, organization theory, firm capabilities. Tionary thought to appraise the state of the art in evo- lutionary.
There are. The University of Oklahoma and. Louisiana State. While studying the historical development of management, two basic phases.
Groups of schools of management thought, are currently in vogue and found. Management theories, school of management thought. Describe how the need to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theory.
An attempt is being made being to trace the history of development of management thought. The technique of management, like the.Mental Revolution: At present, industry is divided into two groups — management and labour. The University of Oklahoma and. Describe how the need to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theory. Adam Smith and James Watt have been recognized as two theorists who launched the world toward industrialization.
The possibilities of eliminating or combining certain operations may be studied. Gilbreth also devised methods for avoiding wasteful and unproductive movements.
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