ELECTRONICS FROM THE GROUND UP PDF
Are you fascinated by the way electronic devices work? Electronics from the Ground Up guides you through step-by-step experiments that reveal how electronic. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Ronald Quan (Cupertino, CA) is an RF circuits design Electronics from the Ground Up guides you through step-by- step. Electronics from the Ground Up: Learn by Hacking, Designing, and Inventing takes a highly practical approach to teaching electronics, starting with simple LEDs.
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Ronald Quan Abstract: Table of Contents A. About the Author B. Preface C. Acknowledgments A. Beginning Electronics 1. Introduction 2. Components and Schematics 3. Construction Techniques and Simple Test Equipment 4. Light Emitters and Receivers 5.
Diodes, Rectifiers, and Associated Circuits 6. Intermediate-Level Electronics 7. Amplifiers and Feedback 8. Audio Signals and Circuits 9. Simply search for the part number and you should find a picture of the part and link to the datasheet.
For instance, from the datasheet for the 2N transistor, I was quickly able to see that pin 1 was the emitter, pin 2 was the base, and pin 3 was the collector.
Aside from the transistors, all of the resistors, capacitors, and LED should be straight-forward to connect. However, there is one tricky bit in the schematic. Notice the half-arch near the transistor. This arch indicates that the capacitor jumps over the trace from the battery and connects to the base of the PNP transistor instead.
Also, when building the circuit, don't forget to keep in mind that the electrolytic capacitors and LED are polarized and will only work in one direction. After you finish building the circuit and plug in the power, it should blink.
The main undercarriage which hits the bumps first is attached to a primary structure and is therefore stronger and more rigid than a nose gear which in the tricycle gear arrangement is the first to hit the bump which is usually fastened to a weaker or nonprimary part of the airframe.
A tail wheel will easily absorb bumps that may be severe enough to damage a nose gear. On most modern airplanes, regardless of whether they have a fixed or retractable undercarriage, the nose wheel and the tail wheel are steerable by the pilots controls.
Shock Absorbers The purpose of the shock absorber is to prevent landing shock damage to the fuselage or body of the airplane. Pilots may accidentally impose heavy stresses due to faulty landings.
If these stresses were not properly absorbed by the landing gear, they could easily cause failure in the airplane structure. Shock absorbers generally are divided into four classes: 1.
Low Pressure Tyres: On some types of light airplanes these are the sole means provided for absorbing shocks. The principal difficulty with tires and some of the other shock absorbing devices is that they do not dissipate the shock but store it and kick the airplane back into the air after a rough landing.
Oleo: When the airplane hits the ground the momentum must be absorbed in the undercarriage. To absorb this energy on springs or rubber alone would result in the aircraft being bounced into the air again.
On practically all modern airplanes, the energy produced on landing is dissipated by forcing oil an incompressible fluid from one side of a piston to the other through a small orifice.
The displacement of the oil is thus delayed, cushioning the shock of landing for the reason that the bulk of the energy is absorbed in forcing the oil through the restricted orifice. The simple oleo Fig.
On landing, these will telescope, and the oil will be displaced from the lower to the upper, but is delayed in doing so by the restricted orifice. Since the oil, once displaced, will not return until the airplane again leaves the ground, the oleo leg serves only to absorb the shock of landing. Further shocks experienced while taxiing or taking off are handled by devices such as the spring shown in Fig.
Rubber: Two types of rubber shock absorbers are in use, usually in conjunction with the oleo, to cushion further shocks after landing. These take the form of rubber discs or doughnuts, and shock cord, which is an elastic cord wound around two moving members.
Spring Steel: The spring steel type of landing gear, as described above, is in itself a shock absorber capable of storing energy. Brakes The advantage of the use of brakes on airplanes is two-fold: 1.
They provide quick deceleration, or pull-up, after landing. For heavy and high speed airplanes that land with faster initial, or hotter, speeds, such quick deceleration is important, especially when landing on short runways. Differential or individually operated brakes, ensure better control after landing, to prevent ground loops, etc. They also provide better manoeuvrability on the ground. On some models of airplanes, steering while taxiing is accomplished only by the use of the brakes.
They are needed to perform short radius turns. Due to the much higher landing speeds of modern airplanes, brakes have to be powerful, reliable and capable of dissipating heat very rapidly. Nearly all airplanes use disc brakes operated by hydraulic pressure, sandwiching a rotating disc between two brake linings called pucks. These pucks are located in a fixed cast unit, grooved to permit the disc to float freely.
Attachment of the disc is attained by splitting tie periphery into the wheel hub.
This floating action allows the disc to move laterally during braking and permits the use of one moving puck. The fixed puck is called the anvil; the moving one is called the piston puck. Pressure applied against the brakes that usually are part of the rudder pedal assembly is translated into hydraulic fluid pressure.
Step 2: Circuits
The hydraulic piston responds to the increased pressure by pushing against the piston puck which in turn pushes the rotating disc against the anvil puck, allowing equal braking force friction on both sides of the disc. Special flexible sealing rings keep the puck-to-disc clearance automatically adjusted by returning the hydraulic piston to a neutral position after each braking action.
Disc brakes are so reliable that, normally, visual inspection is required only at 50 hour intervals. One precaution in their use is recommended. The parking brake should be left off and wheel chocks installed if the airplane is to be left unattended. Changes in the ambient temperature can cause the brakes to release or to exert excessive pressure.
A further problem can occur in airplanes that are flown infrequently e.
Since the discs are made of steel, they are subject to corrosion and rust, especially if exposed to unusual amounts of moisture, salt or industrial pollution.
In an airplane that is used daily, the corrosion and rust are rubbed off by repeated use. The prime element of the braking system is the hydraulic fluid. It transmits pressure and energy, lubricates the moving parts of the system and aids in cooling the working parts. It is important to check carefully the Owners Manual to find out exactly what kind of brake fluid to use.
Mixing different fluids negates the effectiveness of the hydraulic system. Some brake fluids can break down the rubber rings of incompatible systems.
Brake fluid must be kept scrupulously free of contamination by dirt which can render the system effectively inoperative. In some airplanes, the brakes are operated by pneumatic air pressure. A pressure bag is incorporated on the inside of the brake assembly. Air pressure admitted to this pressure bag causes it to expand, forcing the brake shoes to move radially outward against the surface of the brake drum. They move in opposite directions to each other and are controlled by movement of the control wheel or stick.
Torque Tube Aileron Control Three types of control systems are traditionally used to operate the ailerons. When stick control is used, any of these systems may be employed. With wheel control, cables and pulleys are generally used, although in some cases, push and pull rods may be utilized. In larger transport airplanes, the control systems are usually operated by a system of cables and pulleys aided by hydraulic systems.
The new generation of transport airplanes have incorporated computerized control systems which allow operation of the aircraft controls ailerons and also elevators and rudder with electronic signalling.
The controls are activated by electronic signals sent through wires from computers in the cockpit. When the control wheel is rotated to the right or the control stick moved to the right , the left aileron moves down and the right aileron moves up. The lifting capability of the left wing is therefore increased at the same time as the lifting capability of the right wing is decreased.
The left wing lifts and the right wing descends and the airplane rolls to the right. The airplane will continue to roll to the right, steepening the angle of bank, until the controls are neutralized establishing a particular angle of bank. When the control wheel is rotated to the left, the left aileron moves up and the right one moves down and the airplane rolls to the left. The movable horizontal tail surface may be either elevators or stabilators.
The elevators or stabilators are operated by: 1. These systems are connected to the pilots control column. The elevators are hinged to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer and are controlled by forward or aft movements of the control wheel. They move together. When the control wheel is pushed forward, the elevators move down, increasing the lifting capability of the tail. The tail rises and the nose of the airplane moves down. When the control wheel is pulled back, the elevators move up, the lift on the tail is decreased, the tail moves down and the nose of the airplane rises.
Push and Pull Rod Elevator Control. The stabilator is a one piece, horizontal tail surface that pivots up and down.
It operates on the same principle as the elevators, moving up or down, changing its angle of attack and hence its lifting capabilities as the pilot pulls back or pushes forward on the control wheel.
The rudder is attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer, or fin, and is connected to the rudder pedals by a cable system. Pressure applied to the left rudder pedal displaces the rudder to the left into the airstream, increasing the pressure on the left side of the tail and forcing the tail to move to the right. The nose of the airplane moves to the left. Pressure applied to the right rudder pedal moves the nose of the airplane to the right.
The rudder is used with the ailerons to achieve co-ordinated turns. Cable Rudder Control. TRIM SYSTEMS Several types of trim devices are incorporated into the control system to help the pilot by eliminating the need to exert excessive pressure on the cockpit flight controls during the various phases of flight.
Trim Tabs Trim tabs are adjustable devices located at the trailing edge of control surfaces such as elevators, rudders or ailerons. Their function is to permit the pilot to fly the airplane in a desired attitude, under various load and airspeed conditions, without the need to apply constant pressure in any particular direction on the flight controls.
A trim tab is, in effect, a control surface hinged to another control surface. It is designed to move above or below the chord line of the control surface to which it is attached and thereby create an aerodynamic force that assists the pilot in holding the control in the desired position.
The trim tab, for example, is deflected downward in order to hold the control surface up. See Fig. Elevator Trim Tab. The trim tab is operated from the cockpit by its own control which is located to be within easy reach of the pilot.
A tab position indicator is incorporated in the control mechanism to show the nose up or nose down position of the tab setting. The mechanism that operates the trim tab is usually a system of wires and pulleys. The trim tab is not the only device for affecting trim. Some trimming devices incorporate an adjustable spring tension as a means to exert pressure on the control surface to maintain the trimmed position. These are known as bungees. Some form of inflight adjustable trim control is incorporated into the pitching plane of even the smallest airplane.
Trim controls are also used on aileron controls, especially on multi-engine airplanes, and on rudder controls. On airplanes, in which in-flight adjustable trim is incorporated only on the elevator controls, ground adjustable trim tabs are often attached to ailerons or rudder.
These have the effect of helping to correct any slight tendency of the airplane to roll or yaw as the result of less than perfect rigging. Anti-servo tabs serve as trimming devices on stabilators. Servo tabs are a device found most often on larger airplanes.
They are connected directly to the control column. As in the case of the elevator, if the pilot moves the control column back, the servo tab is deflected downward. Air pressure on the tab deflects the elevator control upward to achieve a nose up attitude. The control column controls the servo tab, the elevator is free floating and moves in accordance with the tab deflection.
Adjustable Stabilizer On some airplanes, longitudinal trim is achieved by adjusting the angle at which the stabilizer is attached to the fuselage. The leading edge of the stabilizer is moved up or down by means of a screw jack device that is controlled by a wheel or crank in the cabin. To effect a nose down attitude of the airplane, the leading edge of the stabilizer is rotated up, giving the stabilizer a higher angle of attack. The stabilizer, like trim tabs, can be set in any position between full up and full down.
The adjustable stabilizer has the advantage of producing less drag than the conventional trim tab. Adjustable Stabilizer. Movable Tail On some airplanes, the entire empennage is hinged to pivot either forward or aft. A nose down attitude is achieved by rotating the tail aft. A nose up attitude results from rotating the tail forward.
Movable Tail. Mild steels can be hardened, are strong but less ductile, less weldable. Used for fuselages and control surfaces. High carbon steels exhibit increased strength and hardness but at the sacrifice of ductility and weldability.
Alloy steels, such as chrome moly, are very strong and resistant to impact and vibration. Used in the fabrication of fuselages. Alloy steels containing nickel called stainless steel are very corrosion resistant. Used for stressed skin structures, particularly in seaplane construction.
Electronics from the Ground Up: Learn by Hacking, Designing, and Inventing
Has a very high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. Susceptible to corrosion but can be treated by anodizing. Used for ribs, tanks, bulkheads, propeller blades, fittings, etc. The aluminium protects the dural and prevents corrosion. Very corrosion resistant. Used in seaplane construction. Needs no anodizing.
Combines tensile strength with light weight one-third lighter than aluminium.Notice that by increasing the value of this resistor, the LED blinks slower and that by decreasing it, the LED blinks faster. And reliability refers not only to the mechanical perfection of the airplane and its engine, but to the knowledge, judgment, and all-round proficiency that rides in the cockpit.
Learn by Hacking, Designing, and Inventing. Trim controls are also used on aileron controls, especially on multi-engine airplanes, and on rudder controls. Many of the new business airplanes are jet powered as are most of the large transport type airplanes.
Step 1: Electricity
On some multi-engine airplanes the wheel folds straight back or forward into the nacelle and is left partly projecting in order to protect the belly of the ship in the case of a wheels-up landing. Myself, I'm already an advanced practitioner in this area, but Ron has his own unique approach to things which I find to be both refreshing and intriguing.