BASICS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PDF
This is a review of the 3rd edition of Corbin and Strauss' Basics of Qualitative Research. By Juliet Corbin and Anselm Strauss. The analysis of the fieldnotes follows the interpretation of Nigel Gilbert (Researching Social Life)  of Strauss and Corbin  Grounded Theory's. Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory 8 Analyzing Data for Concepts Contributors: Juliet . Silverman (): „I have lost count of the run of the mill qualitative research papers I have come across which find it necessary to define their work in terms of .
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Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Book. By: Juliet Corbin & Anselm Strauss Published. Basic Designs in Qualitative Research. Excerpt from a Subjective Theory on Trust in Counseling. Forms of Knowledge in the Episodic. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and. Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory author: Strauss, Anselm L.; Corbin, Juliet M.
Grounded Theory is an inductive type of research, based or "grounded" in the observations or data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources, including quantitative data, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys. Berger , and Thomas Luckmann , and ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel. Philosophical Research is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specific field of study or profession, the best qualified individual in any field of study to use an intellectual analysis, in order to clarify definitions, identify ethics, or make a value judgment concerning an issue in their field of study their lives.
Critical Social Research , used by a researcher to understand how people communicate and develop symbolic meanings. Ethical Inquiry , an intellectual analysis of ethical problems. It includes the study of ethics as related to obligation, rights, duty, right and wrong, choice etc. Social Science and Governmental Research to understand social services, government operations, and recommendations or not regarding future developments and programs, including whether or not government should be involved.
Activist Research which aims to raise the views of the underprivileged or "underdogs" to prominence to the elite or master classes, the latter who often control the public view or positions. Foundational Research, examines the foundations for a science, analyzes the beliefs, and develops ways to specify how a knowledge base should change in light of new information.
Historical Research allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of the present condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to current issues and problems.
Historical research helps us in answering questions such as: Where have we come from, where are we, who are we now and where are we going? Visual Ethnography.
It uses visual methods of data collection, including photo, voice, photo elicitation, collaging, drawing, and mapping. These techniques have been used extensively as a participatory qualitative technique and to make the familiar strange. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Interpretive techniques  [ edit ] As a form of qualitative inquiry, students of interpretive inquiry interpretivists often disagree with the idea of theory-free observation or knowledge.
Whilst this crucial philosophical realization is also held by researchers in other fields, interpretivists are often the most aggressive in taking this philosophical realization to its logical conclusions.
For example, an interpretivist researcher might believe in the existence of an objective reality 'out there', but argue that the social and educational reality we act on the basis of never allows a single human subject to directly access the reality 'out there' in reality this is a view shared by constructivist philosophies.
To researchers outside the qualitative research field, the most common analysis of qualitative data is often perceived to be observer impression. None of this is to suggest that neatly demarcated boundaries exist.
It is to say that a failure to understand the forces which act upon the process of social research and the conditions under which it is enacted, leads to a limited understanding of its place and value in social life. Those who wish to change practice, but do not take this into account, simply miss the target.
In the productive agonisms that can and should exist between social research and social life, we need to understand much more about how and under what circumstances it can be deployed without a capitulation to the power of those social forces that seek to mould its practices and findings in their name. Different ways of organizing research can also open up new possibilities Gulbenkian Commission Yet it is upon qualitative research that these critiques have so often alighted and it is for these reasons that this volume was brought together to consider their implications for actual practice.
In the process new terrains of inquiry have been opened up, or subjected to scrutiny in new ways.
These include the relations between fieldwork and social identity, actions, emotions, narratives, reflexivity, participation, representation and generalization. Along with these we have witnessed the introduction of new technologies of data analysis, evaluation research and ways of combining methods to enhance insight into the dynamics of social life.
All of these topics and more are examined in this collection. It has been designed with the intention of assisting the process of reconstruction alongside a continued monitoring of the working assumptions of research practice.
What distinguishes this volume, from other collections, is not only the focus and scope of its contributions, but also the contributors themselves. They come from different intellectual traditions and range from those well established in their disciplines, to those who have recently embarked upon their careers.
What emerges is a sense of the issues that continue to arise in practice, as well as how they are addressed, under what circumstances and with what effects. The contributors are reflecting upon their experiences in terms of what it has informed them about the process of conducting qualitative research. As a result we learn about what we may and may not expect of the product, as well as the actual content and context of its practice.
Important, but often-neglected, issues thereby emerge from within these chapters. For the purposes of assisting the reader, the book is divided into five parts. The first part, however, is explicitly focused around this general issue. Part 2 is then organized around concerns with generalization, interpretation and analysis and Part 3 examines methodological choices in practice.
Part 4 specifically focuses upon issues of power, participation and expertise in the research process. The final part is organized around the themes of reflexivity, the self and positioning.
These parts cannot be exhaustive nor can there be any claim of this type. Nevertheless, they are distinctive and so it is hoped that the reader, once equipped with these accounts, will be better able to engage with issues in practice that, as noted earlier, may often be overlooked. Using examples drawn from work with collaborators, she considers the relations between material conditions, discourses and school, home and work.
In the process we gain an understanding of not only the main tenets of this approach in relation to its aims and modes of engagement with the social world, but also how it addresses the relations between the conduct of research and those who are its subjects and co-producers.
In Chapter 2 Sam Porter discusses the extent to which qualitative research can be used to examine the relationship between social structures and social actions.
He then moves on to trace the development of qualitative work, via phenomenology and postmodernist approaches and in so doing notes a gradual drift away from an examination of social structures. This provides him with an opening for an exposition of critical realism via examples drawn from his own work.
Claims to explanation often rest upon the invoking of rational action of some type.
However, when it comes to utilizing such ideas in research, this story is a long way from an accurate description of human actions. Despite this, there is a frequent conflation of this normative background with the presumed neutrality of its modes of description. As a result researchers have to be aware of the assumptions they make in understanding the actions of those they study.
Taking themes from transformations in social thought, including the postmodern insight that the grounds of human action are often irrational, Peter K. Manning Chapter 3 engages with these issues via examples taken from his work on police detectives.
In the course of his account he takes various approaches to rationality to task. While any identified features of actions may be generalizable, this is an issue that requires empirical investigation. Indeed, what we find within police work is a covering, or procedural, rationality, that is orientated to working in a context where legal rules have to be taken into consideration.
Yet it is seen in these terms only if the local settings in which human action takes place are ignored. A concern with a context-sensitive rationality, as opposed to one that is imposed by the observer, finds its expression in the work of Harold Garfinkel Ethnomethodology was born in this move. It is this perspective, in terms of the study of institutional talk and its relationship to ethnography, that is the subject of Chapter 4 by Christian Heath and Jon Hindmarsh.
Using video and conversation data, the authors argue that the issues which arise in research between the subject and object and talk and non-verbal communication, are amenable to study from an ethnomethodological perspective.
They present studies to demonstrate how there are continual and concerted efforts, on the part of social actors, to produce a social scene. These are not only context-sensitive and producing actions, but also renewing activities. It is an analysis of these, they argue, that enables the modes of sense-making in local settings and the production of intelligibility to be understood. The authors then move on to demonstrate how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology can provide data that is more usually associated with ethnographic work and this enables a greater understanding of, for example, the interactions between people and technology.
Seeking to steer a course between ideographic and nomothetic approaches, he employs moderatum generalizations within a pluralist approach to research practice. This is regarded as being able not only to take on board the issues that he raises and so account for the claims often made by qualitative researchers, but also to provide for a politically informed engagement which is necessary for social transformation.
Now add issues of generalization to one of the most important issues that researchers face: the movement from fieldwork to writing up. While qualitative work seeks to represent social processes, this is associated with the issues of confidentiality, sequences of thought, action and meaning and how many supporting data need to be included in field reports. By examining the sequencing of actions there are ways in which an account can represent facets of observed action. At the same time, we often read accounts and ask of the observer how did they know that?
Particularly when it comes to unobserved phenomena. To these questions, however, we must also add the matter of how observed actions should be reported. In a wide-ranging discussion he notes how errors may be reduced in observation research through attention to a set of core issues.
This also has the benefit of addressing the prejudice, often reproduced by qualitative researchers themselves, that it is only survey work which is reliable. Thus, arithmetical and graphical forms of representation still hold power over an audience as if the process of selectivity had not taken place.
In qualitative research matters relating to selectivity for the purpose of producing accurate representations were to receive a boost with the introduction of dedicated computer software.
Originally designed for the purpose of data analysis, its use has now extended to encompass collection, literature searches and the writing-up process itself. This history, underpinned by the story of code-and-retrieve, then provides a basis for him to move on to demystify these technological changes and examine their effects upon the practices, procedures and principles of qualitative research itself.
With this in mind, Valerie Walkerdine, Helen Lucey and June Melody Chapter 8 examine fantasy, transference and countertransference in relation to not only data analysis, but also production. Using examples from their work, there is an examination of subjectivity and its relation to the production of fieldnotes and how differing subjectivities inform interpretations of the same data.
We thus return to an earlier theme raised by Peter K. Manning, only this time focused upon a different question: how is it that a non-rational understanding of the actions of researchers themselves affects the fieldwork process and product? The concern here is to move beyond ideas of narratives and discourses, without necessarily abandoning the insights that they have generated, to consider how people live with the contradictions and demands that are placed upon their everyday lives.
Chapter 9 compares and contrasts these two main research techniques via examples drawn from their own work. They note that observational methods provide information concerning how individuals and groups behave in a range of social settings, while interviews uncover the perceptions, motives and accounts that people offer for their actions and beliefs.
Although often taken to be methods with different epistemological assumptions and theoretically at odds with one another, they are also seen to complement each other in significant ways. What we end up with, therefore, is a demonstration of how what are often maintained to be opposing positions can, when combined in practice, enrich our insights into social life.
Jennifer Mason continues in Chapter 10 with the theme of choice in methods. By asking what interviews are and what they do, in conceptual and epistemological terms, she is then in a position to explore issues associated with generalization. At this point interviewers are often faced with the act of interviewing being a static-causal snapshot when they actually seek to understand social processes. A decontextualized form of knowledge gathering thus becomes highly problematic. To overcome this tendency she argues that the interview should be seen as a process of co-participation in which both parties regard it as a site of knowledge production.
Just what is the significance of narratives in terms of how they are deployed in social life in order to construct accounts and social identities? These are expressed in terms of transformations over time, along with actions and characters, within an overall plot.
About Research Rundowns
To understand narratives it is necessary to situate people within particular historical and cultural milieus in order to see how they are indicative of what may and what may not, be said. Thus, in the opening chapter to Part 4, Linda McKie notes that it is often assumed qualitative fieldwork enables the voices of respondents to be heard in ways that quantitative work does not permit.
Mix this with evaluation studies and it can raise expectations among participants that may not be met by the process and its product. Add to this the flow of power and its sites of production and this will have an effect upon how researchers can engage with communities and other stakeholders in the research process.
Linda McKie provides us with a very good illustration of the practical issues that arise in the conduct of evaluation work and how this affects its credibility and potential within different settings.
By considering her own experiences in these contexts and how the projects unfolded and what actions were taken during the process, she highlights the importance of dialogue and deliberation.
What is then required on the part of the researcher is a heightened sense of the dynamics of power in terms of how they inform the design, conduct and dissemination of the research itself.
It is this theme that informs the next two chapters. Lynne Haney Chapter 13 examines the roles of power and negotiation in the context of two ethnographic studies — one in California and the other in Hungary — she has conducted on the state. These studies, she argues, provide critical cases for viewing the dynamics of the fieldwork process.
Following the work of Dorothy E. As a result these conditions create particular issues for reflexive researchers. In order to consider how and under what circumstances these arise and the manner in which they may be acted upon, she discusses feminist-inspired debates about co-participation. Such thinking may be argued to have informed debates concerning the position of white female researchers researching black women. This does not suggest a balance of power, simply that the assumption of the powerful researcher and the powerless research subject requires a more nuanced understanding.
Tracey Reynolds Chapter 14 brings this to her account of being a black female researcher interviewing other black women in contemporary Britain. By taking a relational approach, she argues that power should be seen as shifting and renegotiating itself according to differing contexts in terms not only of race, but also gender and class. From this point of view, to automatically assume an imbalance of power in favour of the researcher is highly problematic when it comes to the dynamics of the fieldwork process itself.
The final part thus starts with Amanda Coffey considering the literary turn in ethnographic writings and its relationship to the self. While, as I noted earlier, this has sensitized us to important issues for practice, it has also had the effect of diverting attention away from what is discovered as a result of the research process itself. An understanding of social issues is thereby in danger of being abandoned in favour of introspection without engagement.
To this extent the idea of producing selves within research texts should be viewed as only one part of the ways in which relations between the researcher and the social settings they seek to understand should be considered. Amanda Coffey therefore turns our attention to these issues and the limits to autoethnography for the purpose of representation.
Lisa Adkins then moves our focus to the politics of reflexivity in Chapter Drawing upon her studies of gender, sexuality and work, she argues that the turn towards particular ideas on reflexivity in social research entails relations between the knower and known that permit only certain voices to be heard.
A vision of the mobility of the knower, in terms of their identity, is underpinned by the assumption that they are able to move across boundaries. This raises key questions: what kind of self is required to be a reflexive researcher? In asking such questions, she produces an account which questions the so-called reflexive turn in terms of its ability to amplify marginalized voices.
Beverley Skeggs picks up the idea of mobile selves in Chapter In the grander claims of social theory there is often a conflation of two dimensions of action: ability and capability.
This, following the work of Pierre Bourdieu, concerns dispositions and positions within fields of relations characterized by the distribution of differing forms of capital Bourdieu With this in mind the issues surrounding and informing mobility should not be the assumption that all are mobile, as Lisa Adkins also argues in Chapter 16, but who, under what circumstances and utilizing what resources?
In drawing upon her own fieldwork, Beverley Skeggs argues that attention should be turned to understanding and explaining why some people are not mobile and how their fixed positions are relied upon for the mobility of others.
Without this consideration in place, calls to reflexivity become nothing more than a licence to confess, as opposed to a study of practices in relation to positioning. In the course of her discussion she thus uncovers boundaries to potentiality whose existence creates a refusal, on the part of some, to see reflexivity and mobility as privileges born of positioning.
An assumption is often made that emotions are a block to objective analysis. Such a belief is frequently perpetuated within the conditions of knowledge production itself. In university departments, for example, aloof detachment can mix with the posturing that accompanies positions informed by the accumulation of cultural capital.
In these circumstances individualism may flourish and the commitment and passion to conduct research can be bracketed. This is particularly paradoxical when a discipline certainly respects and celebrates the individual, but for which individualism is a totally false description of the social world.
Sherryl Kleinman Chapter 18 thus starts with such conditions and their effects upon her identity and understandably uncertainty. Nevertheless, she charts how she took such feelings as an impetus for further understanding through her own fieldwork.
The result is an insightful account of how it is that emotions can inform not only a greater understanding of ourselves, but also those who are the subjects and co-producers of qualitative research. SUMMARY All of the chapters in this collection constitute core insights into the perspectives, experiences and issues that inform and arise from the process and practice of qualitative research.
As I noted at the beginning of this introduction, there is a tendency to regard textual critiques as somehow sufficient for the changing of practice. Without sensitivity to the pressures and experiences that inform research, however, this so easily lapses into a constructivist idealism that misses its mark. In the first instance this necessitates an understanding of the issues that arise within research practice, as well as an understanding of the conditions of knowledge production itself. The potential to inform practice may then be derived from an explanation of the relations that exist between dispositions, positions and practices.
The chapters in this volume are a valuable and insightful contribution to that process. Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, P. Bryant, C.
London: Macmillan. Derrida, J. London: Routledge. We refer to this excerpt throughout the remainder of this paper to illustrate how data can be managed, analyzed, and presented. Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. The first is the culture of the indigenous population of Canada and the place of this population in society, and the second is the social constructivist theory used in the constructivist grounded theory method.
With regard to the first standpoint, it can be surmised that, to have decided to conduct the research, the researchers must have felt that there was anecdotal evidence of differences in access to arthritis care for patients from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. With regard to the second standpoint, it can be surmised that the researchers used social constructivist theory because it assumes that behaviour is socially constructed; in other words, people do things because of the expectations of those in their personal world or in the wider society in which they live.
Thus, these 2 standpoints and there may have been others relevant to the research of Thurston and others 7 will have affected the way in which these researchers interpreted the experiences of the indigenous population participants and those providing their care. Another standpoint is feminist standpoint theory which, among other things, focuses on marginalized groups in society.
Such theories are helpful to researchers, as they enable us to think about things from a different perspective.
Being aware of the standpoints you are taking in your own research is one of the foundations of qualitative work. It is important for the researcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, in the example, the coder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who has lived within middle class and upper middle class settings.
This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work.
For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis. For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group.
It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe.
If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work. If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice. Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team.
Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back.
Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved. In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data. While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics.
While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sections , it is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying. For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say?
Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory
Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say. Rather, interpretative phenomenological analysis is about getting underneath what a person is saying to try to truly understand the world from his or her perspective. Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding.
Field notes compiled during an interview can be a useful complementary source of information to facilitate this process, as the gap in time between an interview, transcribing, and coding can result in memory bias regarding nonverbal or environmental context issues that may affect interpretation of data.
Coding can be done by hand on a hard copy of the transcript, by making notes in the margin or by highlighting and naming sections of text. More commonly, researchers use qualitative research software e. It is advised that researchers undertake a formal course in the use of such software or seek supervision from a researcher experienced in these tools. If we read a little more deeply, we can ask ourselves how the participant might have come to feel that the doctor assumed he or she was aware of the diagnosis or indeed that they had only just been told the diagnosis.
There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience.
At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading. There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research. This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings. Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way.
Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation. Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants.
The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report. The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines.
In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end.
As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation. Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants. It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once.
After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings.
Qualitative Research Design
It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment. An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship.
Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches. There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management.Your will find pointers whether CAQDAS is a useful choice and where researchers have used it for data organization and management only.
Wernet, Andreas One must mentally remove oneself from what is going on. They are still important categories. Res Soc Adm Pharm. Some qualitative data that is highly structured e. The reader will see that each memo has been assigned a number and titled with a concept that reflects what I think the raw data are all about.
Preparing transcriptTranscribe word by word verbatim Consider non-verbal expressionsTry to do the transcribing yourselfBe patient-Time consuming 21 Phenomenography Phenomenography is a fairly new qualitative research method developed in the mid to late s.
Of interest is the entire life story in terms of its genesis and how it is constructed in the present.
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