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ISBN ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices; Immediate eBook download after. In-depth investigation of Hebrew verb morphology in light of cutting edge theories of morphology and lexical semantics An original theory ab. Maya Arad. 1. Introduction and background: two aspects of verbs' meanings. Before plunging into the semantics of the Hebrew verb saxah ‛swim', a word is in or.

Arad Maya Pdf

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MAYA ARAD from one another, and are by no means predictable from the combina- tion of the root and the word-creating head. This property is language. Jun 9, PDF | Experiencer-object verbs are known to deviate from the prototype of transitive object verbs in Turkish, Yucatec Maya, and Chinese display the semanto- . In the same vein, Arad (a, b) and Landau () show. Thanks go to Maya Arad, Heidi Harley, Alec Marantz, Liina Pylkkänen, two anonymous reviewers, and the rest of the Lexical Categories reading group at. Penn.

The question is what accounts for both aspects of the system, the regular and the irregular. The fact that every verb must be in the form of a pattern Chapter Two entails that all systematic argument structure changing alternations will be mediated through the pattern system, by the appearance of the root in different patterns.

By the same token, when roots are assigned multiple meanings, these meanings are also assigned in the environment of different patterns Chapter Three.

There is no way to mark verb alternations outside the binyan system e. Likewise, there is no way to create two verbs from the same root outside the binyan system. The verbal pattern system, therefore, has a dual role. It simultaneously marks argument structure alternations and creates multiple verbs from a single root. It is thus entirely predictable that the Hebrew verbal system should contain both a regular aspect argument structure alternations and an irregular aspect MCM.

If both regularity and irregularity are inherent to the Hebrew verbal system, the interesting question becomes not merely qualitative, but also quantitative. How much regularity and how much irregularity does the system manifest? Chapter Five aims to answer this question.

It studies an exhaustive corpus of about Modern Hebrew verb-creating roots, prepared as part of this work. This corpus enables us to measure, in terms of number of roots, how much regularity and irregularity the Hebrew verbal system has, and to examine the possible types of relations between the occurrences of the root across the pattern system.

These roots are assigned multiple interpretations in the environment of different patterns. A complete picture of the Hebrew verbal system arises from this corpus. Single Occurrence roots leave six binyan slots empty. Alternations normally do not occupy more than three slots. This issue is at the heart of the question concerning the semantic and morphological regularity in the Hebrew verbal system.


Finally, the theory has to address the morphological marking of verbs itself: Which patterns may mark argument structure alternations? Which patterns normally mark MCM? How to capture the dependency between the morphological marking of causative and non-causative pairs? Based on the results of the corpus, I evaluate two recent theories of the Hebrew verbal system. In spite of their elegance and theoretical interest, both theories are empirically questionable.

The predictions it makes regarding the syntactic properties of verbs are very often not borne out. Furthermore, by limiting itself to voice and agency, the theory fails to capture other types of alternations that occur in the Hebrew verbal system, for example, from state into a change of state.

Hebrew Morpho-syntax

I examine the behavior of Hebrew verbs in relation to a typological study of the causative and anti-causative alternation Haspelmath While Hebrew conforms to the universal patterns pointed out by Haspelmath, it is shown that binyanim themselves cannot be equated with semantic classes, as Doron , argues. Chapter Six offers a theory of the Hebrew verbal system and attempts to account for the empirical problems arising from the corpus study discussed in Chapter Five.

This account is based on two distinctions, one syntactic and one morphological: r Syntactic distinction between verbs derived from roots r and verbs derived from other verbs. I propose that a crucial structural distinction must be made between verbs constructed directly from roots and verbs derived from other verbs. Root-derivation is characterized by gaps there may be a causative verb without an inchoative one , special meaning assigned to the verb and a degree of freedom in morphological marking.

Having characterized Hebrew verbs in terms of the elements they are derived from, roots or verbs, I draw a further morphological distinction, between binyanim that may be inserted only in the environment of roots—CaCaC, CiCCeC, and hiCCiC—and binyanim that may be inserted either in the environment of a root or in the environment of another verb—niCCaC and hitCaCCeC.

When we combine the two distinctions, between root-derivation and verb-derivation and between the different contexts for insertion of binyanim, the behavior of the Hebrew verbal system becomes straightforward. The irregular aspects of the Hebrew verbal system have two sources. Root-derived verbs may exhibit gaps the root may or may not take up an interpretation in the environment of a certain binyan , special meaning unpredictable meanings for Single Occurrence roots and MCM, idiomatic meaning in causatives and some freedom in choice of binyan form, as selected by the root.

The second source of irregularity in the Hebrew verbal system is morphological. The system, I argue, exhibits a substantial degree of syncretism where the same phonological exponent is used to mark two or more grammatical forms. As we shall see in Chapters Four to Six, the same binyan may host either causative or non-causative verbs.

Furthermore, the same binyan may mark a root-derived verb or a verb-derived verb. Once we understand the morphological marking of verbs in terms of the syncretism in the binyan system, the irregularity becomes explained, and the regularity is predicted that is, in verb-derivation. In other words, this theory offers precise conditions, given in structural terms, when irregularity might be expected and when regularity is predicted.

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Irregularity, I argue, is a central property of the Hebrew verbal system, having to do with the fact that most verbs are derived from roots. My account of the Hebrew verbal system in Chapter Six relies on the distinction between root-derived verbs and verb-derived verbs.

In Chapter Seven, I claim that the distinction between derivation from roots and from non-roots is in fact even more central to Hebrew word-formation. Comparing root-derived verbs with verbs made from existing words, Chapter Seven points out a striking contrast between the two groups. Verbs made from roots may be assigned multiple interpretations in different contexts, as illustrated in Chapter Three.

The hypotheses explored so far in this book predict, in fact, that the ability to take on multiple interpretations should be strictly reserved to roots. Once the root has been incarnated, there is no longer a root—a potentiality with many possible incarnations—but an actual noun or verb.

The pattern environment thus serves as a structural domain for special meaning assigned to roots. If verbs are built up in the syntax, then what is the principle that accounts for the semantic opacity of words below the pattern level?

Indeed, the verbal or nominal head that combines with the root, that is, the pattern, serves as the environment where both the phonology and the semantics of the noun or the verb are incarnated. This explains both the semantic properties of denominal verbs in Hebrew—the semantic dependency between the base noun and the verb derived from it, and their phonological properties e.

But this is precisely where denominals differ from root-derived verbs. When we look closely at verbs that are traditionally taken to be rootderived, we see none of the properties exhibited by denominals. In addition, in many cases root-derived verbs exhibit phonological peculiarities which depend on the form of their root.

Combining the semantic and phonological differences in the behavior of the two groups of verbs provides the strongest support for the existence of the Hebrew root. This work argues for the adoption of two assumptions, the existence of the root and the syntactic nature of word-formation.

Much of the behavior of Hebrew verbs can be neatly explained on the basis of these two assumptions. With the next chapter, we begin to see this in detail.

Roots and Patterns

Introduction: Roots and Features. The Noun—Verb Asymmetry in Hebrew. I argue that the asymmetry between nouns and verbs results from the interaction of three independent facts: r The universal need of verbs to combine syntactically with voice features. These two hypotheses, taken together, yield the following two results. The vocalism in verbal patterns is the phonological spell-out of a morpho-syntactic feature, voice, which must be spelled out.

About Arad's Design for the National 9/11 Memorial

In contrast, the vocalism in nominal patterns is a mere phonological mechanism, making consonantal roots into pronounceable units and serving as part of the environment where roots are assigned a nominal interpretation.

As a result, all the elements that combine with voice, i. Second, we can predict, based on the morpho-phonological form of the root itself, which nouns will be exempt from nominal pattern morphology and which nouns will obligatorily carry it. I contend that nominal patterns, unlike verbal patterns, are a phonological requirement. As a consequence, consonantal roots must take nominal pattern morphology, otherwise they are not made into a continuous string, and are unpronounceable.

Syllabic roots, on the other hand, are pronounceable on their own. There is no phonological requirement for them to become pronounceable, and as a result they do not take nominal pattern morphology. Within W generative grammar, the decomposition of words into roots has not been widely assumed. However, recent work in the framework of distributed morphology DM, cf.

While the formation of words out of roots is universal, the morpho-phonological realization of 1 26 C HAPTER 2 may differ from one language to another, or even within the same language.

Note that 1 describes the combination of a root with morpho-syntactic category features. A central claim made throughout the book is the role of locality in word formation, teasing apart word formation from roots and word formation from existing words syntactically, semantically and phonologically.

The book focuses on Hebrew, a language with rich verb morphology, where both roots and noun- and verb-creating morphology are morphologically transparent.

The study of Hebrew verbs is based on a corpus of all Hebrew verb-creating roots, offering, for the first time, a survey of the full array of morpho-syntactic forms seen in the Hebrew verb.

While the focus of this study is on how roots function in word-formation, a central chapter studies the information encoded by the Hebrew root, arguing for a special kind of open-ended value, bounded within the classes of meaning analyzed by lexical semanticists.

The book is of wide interest to students of many branches of linguistics, including morphology, syntax and lexical semantics, as well as of to students Semitic languages. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. download eBook.

download Hardcover. download Softcover. FAQ Policy. Daniel Libeskind , master planner for the World Trade Center site, said that Reflecting Absence did not harmonize with his own Memory Foundations design vision. Max Bond, Jr. Early on, however, politicians, historians, and community leaders knew that a good part of the real estate had to be dedicated to the people affected by the terrorist tragedy.

This meant a memorial and museum within one of the largest spaces set aside for redevelopment. Who was involved? Compromise is the cornerstone of every great project. It's now known as the National September 11 Memorial. The names of those who died areinscribed on the bronze parapet on the plaza level, instead of in underground galleries.

Many other features that Arad wanted have been modified or eliminated. Still, his core vision — deep voids and rushing water — remains intact.

Architects Michael Arad and Peter Walker worked with a water architect and many engineers to construct the enormous waterfalls.

Family members or victims remained actively involved as they deliberated over the arrangement of the engraved names.

Together, all of the architectural elements are known as the National September 11 Memorial Museum. The Memorial by Arad and Walker is an open park space, free to the public. The underground museum, includingthe infamous slurry wall that holds back the Hudson River, is open for a fee. The September 11 memorial site is designed to honor the nearly 3, people who were killed in New York, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon on September 11, , and also the six people who died when terrorists bombed the New York World Trade Center on February 26, Any number of morpho-phonological contexts can accommodate the same root and, relative to each, the complete word is assigned a separate meaning which, however, always retains the semantic core of the root itself.

Many other features that Arad wanted have been modified or eliminated. The puzzle is as follows: Hebrew has seven different verbal patterns binyanim , which can be characterized in terns of transitivity Berman Maya Arad born January 25, is an American-based Israeli writer,. Combining the semantic and phonological differences in the behavior of the two groups of verbs provides the strongest support for the existence of the Hebrew root.

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