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Browse NEET Free Study Material Sub-topics NEET was previously called AIPMT. Alkaloids and Uses (Download PDF) · Biogeochemical Cycles Youtube Lecture Handouts (Download PDF) · Biology Assertion Reason. Some of the recommendations are: AIPMT / NEET-UG Chapterwise Notes Get Free Study Material for NEET to (Previously Know. Download Free AIPMT BIOLOGY study material - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. APEX INSTITUTE has been .

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Free download NEET study material for Physics, Chemistry, Biology and start preparation for NEET exam with EtoosIndia, prepare by Kota's Faculty. NEET Books List For UG/ PG – Study Material. November 1 NEET Syllabus – Biology/Physics/Chemistry Free PDF [Download]. Get free NEET study material, NEET notes for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, along with NEET practice questions for every subject, NEET.

Some important exceptions in biology are as follows Mature RBC of mammals are enucleated except camel and llama Nucleated RBC is present Normally the root of plants are positively geotropic but in mangrove plants Rhizophora negatively geotropic pneumatophores are present.

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Ostrich, Emu, Cassowary and Kiwi are birds which cannot fly. Duckbilled platypus and spiny ant eaters lay eggs like birds but they are mammals cledoic egg Crocodiles and alligators are reptiles having four chambered heart like mammals instead of incomplete four chambered heart of reptiles.

Generally mammals have seven cervical vertebrae while sea cow has six and sloth has nine cervical vertebrae. Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs.

Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future. The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body. Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases. We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders.

Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity. It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems. Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body. A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals.

With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops. Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society.

The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists.

Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e.

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Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks. Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e. In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine.

Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy. He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body. Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery.

Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty. He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case. Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts. He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity.

According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed. Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child. The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity.

Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies. His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern.

Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution. Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them.

Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals. Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function.

Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia.

In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist. Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him. He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum.

Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature.

Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things. Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution.

He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology. Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species.

His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century. His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance. According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules. Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist. Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations.

The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells. The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus.

With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies.

Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism.

Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus. The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria.

Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology. Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species. Schlieden the first statement on cell theory. Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based.

Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype. Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype. Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype.

Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype. Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype.

It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species — eg.

Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification. The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.

For example: It has only one application: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i. Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance. In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered.

In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group. In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg. Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria.

In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc.

Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i. In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters.

They have many dissimilarities. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification. In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities. In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance.

While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc.

They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy. In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology.

Popular Blogs Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves. Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i. But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future.

But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation. D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species.

Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present. Variations found in these members are permanent. These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species. Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology.

They are called as linneon species.

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They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species. Those species in which variations are very less. They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations. Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species.

Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species. Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions. The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg. Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils.

Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently. It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants. B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc. C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope. It is based on all the informations or data available about plants.

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D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy. Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels. E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy.

It is based on the chemical constitution of plants. The fragrance and taste vary from species to species. The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc. F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes.

Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters. B He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany.

D Theopharastus wrote many books on plants. Few of them are as follows a Historia plantarum B Causes of plants C Enquiry into plants E Theophratus gave names and descriptions of plants in his book Historia plntarum. F Theophrastus proposes the first classification of plant kingdom. He classified plant kingdom in to four groups on the basis of growth habit - a Trees b Shrubs c Under shrubs d Herbs G It is artificial classification.

H He proposed the term Annual, Biennial and Perennials. He was the Swedish scientist C He is known as father of taxonomy, father of plant taxonomy and father of animal taxonomy. D Linnaeus gave the two kingdom system classification.

E Linnaeus wrote many books. Some important books are: In this book he gives the detailed description of animals kingdom. De Candolle: On this basis of vascular tissue the classified plants into two groups a Cellular plants Non vascular plants - this group includes Thallophyta and Bryophyta b Vascular plants - This group includes Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms.

B Scientists working in botanical garden are known as curapor. In this boom Bentham and Hooker gave the biggest and natural classification of spermatophyta i. In it, basically the description of plant with seeds is present. Merits of Bentham and Hooker classification.

This was very appreciable because floral characters are more stable than vegetative root, stem, leaves characters. Therefore the arrangement of all plants in the botanical gardens and herbarium of the world is based on it Although it is not the best classification but yet the arrangement of plants in botanical gardens and herbarius is based on it, because it is the simpler one.

The main reason for its simplicity is that this classification is based on actual observation. Demerits of Bentham and Hooker: The sequence of evolution is as follows: Sub-kingdom Cryptogamia Phanerogamia Plant without flower Plant with flower life stru. Male gametes reach the female Two groups are include in this division gametes through pollen tube.

A Proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. B This classification is the complete classification of plant kingdom. C This is the most acceptable classification for books and study. Tipoo does not use the word pteridophyta 9 Karl Menz: A he show the importance of secrelogy in taxonomy. B Similarities and dissimilarities in stru. Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins.

Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins. Phylogenetic relationship of plants and animals can be established by animal serum. Serology indicates that chimpanzee is closest relative of man.

A Haeckel gave the three kingdom Protista, Planae, Animalia system of classification. B Haeckel established the kingdom Protista. D Haeckel grouped those living organisms in Protista which did not have tissues.

He gave the Four kingdom system of classification. All the prokaryote are grouped in Monera ii Protista or prototista: Copleland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different that normal plants and animals. Brown algaem Red algae, Fungi Protozoa iii Plantae or metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped. Remaining all eukaryotic animals re grouped. Whittaker A He gave the Five kingdom system of classification.

B This classification was believed to be modern The five kingdom classification of Whittaker was based on 3 main characters a Complexity of cell: Cell is prokaryote or Eukaryote, on this basis, kingdom Monera is formed. And all the proykaryotes are grouped in to it. Organism in unicellular or multicellular, on this basis kingdom Protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it. Organism in autotrophic or heterotrophic, on this basis kingdom Myctota. Planatae and Animalaia was formed.

Except fungi heterotrophic all the plants are autotrophs. Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom - Plantae. Since all the animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in fifth kingdom i.

True fungi 4. Van Neil: Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Main characteristic of prokaryotes: Cell wall of prokaryotes is made up of peptidoglycan or murein which is a type of mucopeptide.

The structure of peptidoglycan has two parts A Polysaccharides: They are made up of glucose, mannose, galacotse and amino sugar units. Following amino acids are present in the cell wall of prokaryotes: Muramic acid - This acid is found in eubacteria and BGA 3. Generally the cell wall of prokaryotes is not made up of cellulose but exceptionally there are some prokaryotes in which cell wall made up cellulose, which are as follows - eg.

Acetobacer acetogenum Acetobacter Xylenum Zymosarcina Prokayotes which are intra cellular lack cell wall e. Mycoplasma 2 Cell membrane: This space, is analogus to lysomome because in this space the digestion of complex substance is done.

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A The cytoplasm of prokaryotes lacks membrane bound cell organelles. B In Prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is indistinct. Nuclear membrane is absent around nucleus. It also lacks nucleolus. Non histone proteins are polyamines. This false chromosome coils and forms the chromosomal region, which is known as nucleoid.

C Is prokaryotes ribosomes are of 70s type. There is no particular structure like cilia, flagella for locomotion.

Flagella are present in many prokaryotes for swimming. Eubacteria B Non motile prokaryotes - eg. He discovered the antiseptic nature of carbolic acid.

Lister first of all cultured bacteria artificially. Pasteurisation technique - it is a process which means heating of drinks. On the basis of their shape bacteria are of different types. Coccus Pl. These are following types A. Monocossus - These spherical bacteria live alone single sphere e. Micrococcus, Dialister pneumosintes B.

Diplococcus - These are found in pair. Diplococcus pneumniae, Neisseria C. Tetra occurs - These are found in group of four cocci.

Micrococcus luteus D. Streptococcus - These are found in form of chain e. Streptococcus lactis E. Sarcinae - 8 to 64 or ore bacteria are found in cubical mass form e. Sarcina F. Staphylococcus - These bacteria are found in a irregular bunch e.

Staphylococcus alvus 2. Bacillus Pl. Bacilli - Sing. Single Bacillus - Only one rod -like structure or bacterium. Diplobacillus - They are found in pairs e.

Diplobacillus C. Streptobacillus - They are found in a chain e. Bacillus anthracis Bacillus subtilis -It is surrounded by mucilagenous sheath that is known as zooglea.

It is also known as hay bacteria. Palisade bacillus - These roed shaped bacteria are found in form of stacks e. Corynebacterium diphtheriae 3. Spirillum Pl. Spirilli - Sing. Spirillum volutans, Spirochete, Helibacter, Treponema 4.

Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio comma 5. Caulobacter 6. Rhodomicrobium 7. Rhizobium Rhizobium bacterium is found in three forms X,T and Z Bacteria are motile as well as non motile. Movement in bacteria takes place by means of flagella. On the basis of flagella bacteria are of following types 1.

Atrichous - When flagella are absent, it is called atrocious form e. Micrococcus, Pasteurella 2. Monotrichous - When only one flagellum on one end of the bacterium e.

Vibrio, Thiobacillu, Pseudomonas 3. Lophotrichous - When a bunch of flagellum is present on one end of bacterium. Salmonella 4. Amphitrichous - When bunch of flagellum or single flagellum are present on both the ends of bacterium. Spirillu, Nitrosomonas 5.Holley and Marshall W. His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.

Griffith selected two strains of Diplococcus pneumoniae for his experiment. B In Prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is indistinct.

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