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Rezime - Razmotrene su meridijanske psiho terapije za vrlo brzo uklanjanje mnogobrojnih psihosomatskih poreme. Two approaches to the. Register a domain name and transfer domains. Reliable web hosting and VPS. This is an electronic book in PDF. Pdf accessed May 5. Find topics like gratitude, character strengths etc. III 1. Skok Nodilo , Brandt M. La mythologie slave , Beograd. Mansikka V. New Larousse , New Larousse encyclopaedia of mythology. Niederle L. Nodilo N. Skok P. Slavic mythology is the mythological aspect of the polytheistic religion that was practised by the Slavs.
Slavic religion is related to pre-Christian religious practices among the Slavs of Eastern Europe. There is only fragmentary and scattered information about the myths and legends of the pagan Slavs, and it is not possible to trace the history of their religion or to reconstruct the whole Slavic pantheon.
Nevertheless, there were certain common beliefs among most pre-Christian Slavs. It is generally thought that the earliest Slavic religious beliefs were based on the principle that the whole natural world is inhabited and directed by spirits or mysterious forces. Later, particularly in areas where the Slavs had a more organized cultural life and were integrated with foreign peoples, the spiritual beliefs became less rustic, and the vague spirits of nature were anthropomorphized into divinities with special powers and functions.
The ancient Russians appear to have erected their idols outdoors, but the Baltic Slavs built temples and enclosed sacred places, where festivals were held and animal and human sacrifices occurred. Such festivals also often included communal banquets at which the flesh of sacrificial animals was consumed.
Flora Slovenska. I. [Вводная часть]
Unlike Greek or Egyptian mythology, there are no first-hand records for the study of Slavic mythology. Despite some arguable theories for instance, the Book of Veles , it cannot be proven that the Slavs had any sort of writing system before Christianity; therefore, all their original religious beliefs and traditions were likely passed down orally over the generations, and basically forgotten over the centuries following the arrival of Christianity.
Before that, sparse records of Slavic religion were mostly written by non-Slavic Christian missionaries who were uninterested in accurately portraying pagan beliefs. Archaeological remains of old Slavic cult images and shrines have been found, though little can be yielded from them without legitimate knowledge of their contexts, other than confirming existing historical records.
Fragments of old mythological beliefs and pagan festivals survive up to this day in folk customs, songs, and stories of all the Slavic nations. Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst others believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari wolf-humans.
The identification of "Neuri" with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however. The first authoritative reference to the Slavs and their mythology in written history was made by the 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius, whose Bellum Gothicum described the beliefs of a South Slavic tribe that crossed the Danube heading south in just two days.
According to Procopius, these Slavs worshipped a single deity, who crafted lightning and thunder. Though not named 3 explicitly, it can be deduced this is a reference to the deity known as Perun in later historic sources, as in many Slavic languages today Polish 'piorun' for example. Perun simply means "thunder" or "lightning bolt". He also mentions the belief in various demons and nymphs i.
The most numerous and richest written records are of West Slavic paganism, particularly of Wendish and Polabian tribes, who were forcibly made Christian only at the end of the 12th century. The German missionaries and priests who criticized pagan religion left extensive records of old mythological systems they sought to overcome.
As none of those missionaries learned any Slavic language, their records are confused and exaggerated. Another very valuable document is the Chronica Slavorum written in the late 12th century by Helmold, a German priest. Saxo meticulously described the worship of Svantevit, the customs associated with it and the tall four-headed statue of the god. The fourth major source are three biographies of the German warrior-bishop St Otto, who in the early 12th century led several military-pastoral expeditions into the regions of Slavic tribes living near the Baltic Sea.
According to the manuscript, the most important Slavic deity was Triglav, whose temples in the city of Szczecin were respected oracles. In the cities of Wolgast and Havelberg, the war god Gerovit was worshiped, a likely corruption of Jarovit, a Slavic deity possibly identical to Jarilo of the East Slavic folklore. Amongst the rural majority of the medieval Slavic population, old myths remained strong.
Christian priests and monks in Slavic countries, particularly in Russia, for centuries fought against the phenomenon called dvoeverie double faith. On the one hand, peasants and farmers eagerly accepted baptism, masses and the new Christian holidays.
On the other hand, they still persisted performing ancient rites and worshiping old pagan cults, even when the ancient deities and myths on which those were based were forgotten. From a perspective of the Slavic peasant, Christianity was not a replacement of old Slavic mythology, but rather an addition to it. Christianity may have offered a hope of salvation, and of blissful afterlife in the next world, but for survival in this world, for yearly harvest and protection of cattle, the old religious system with its fertility rites, its protective deities, and its household spirits was taken to be necessary.
This was a problem the Christian church never really solved; at best, it could offer a Christian saint or martyr to replace the pagan deity of a certain cult, but the cult itself thrived, as did the mythological view of the world through which natural phenomena were explained.
While folk beliefs and traditions of all Slavic peoples indeed are the richest resource for reconstructing the ancient pagan beliefs, these may very likely have lost their original mythology and sanctity. People entertained a vague idea that some festivals must be celebrated in a certain way, some stories must be told or some songs must be sung, merely in accordance with tradition. Cults of old deities were mixed with worship of new Christian saints, and old rituals blended among new Christian holidays.
We can roughly divide the folklore accounts into two groups: Fairy tales about various fantastical characters and creatures such as Alkonost, Baba Yaga, Koschei the Deathless, Firebird, Zmey, songs and tales of legendary heroes such as Russian bogatyrs, and superstitions about various demons and spirits such as domovoi, likho, vilas, vampires, vodyanoy, rusalkas etc. Many of these tales and beliefs may be quite ancient, and probably contain at least some elements of old mythical structure, but they are not myths themselves.
They lack a deeper, sacral meaning and religious significance, and furthermore they tend to vary greatly among various Slavic populations. Folk celebrations of various Christian festivals and popular beliefs in various saints. It is, for instance, quite clear that a popular saint in many Slavic countries, St Elijah the Thunderer, is a replacement of old thunder-god Perun.
Likewise, traces of ancient deities can also be found in cults of many other saints, such as St Mary, St Vitus, St George, St Blaise and St Nicholas, and it is also obvious that various folk celebrations, such as the spring feast of Jare or Jurjevo and the summer feast of Ivanje or Ivan Kupala, both very loosely associated with Christian holidays, are abundant with pre- Christian elements.
These beliefs have considerable religious and sacral significance to the people still performing them. The problem is, of course, that the elements of pre-Christian religion are hopelessly mixed into popular Christianity. Thus, to understand their mythology, it is important to understand their concept of calendar. On the basis of archeological and folklore remains, it is possible to reconstruct some elements of the pre-Christian calendar, particularly major festivals.
The year was apparently lunar and began in early March, similar to other Indo-European cultures whose old calendar systems are better known to us. After Christianization, these names were probably passed onto Easter. In pagan times, however, this was a holiday probably quite like Halloween.
Certain people donned grotesque masks and coats of sheep wool, roaming around the villages, as during the Great Night, it was believed, spirits of dead ancestors travelled across the land, entering villages and houses 5 to celebrate the new year with their living relatives.
Consequently, the deity of the last day of the year was probably Veles, god of the Underworld. The number three: Slavs really like the number three, and tend to group things in threes whenever possible. Nine is the second most popular, being three threes. Many folk tales are about three brothers, with the youngest always winning. Burial rituals: The early Slavs cremated the dead to help the soul rise up to Heaven, also a reasonable practice when bears and wolves live in the area.
The Christian practice of burial can't have been an easy sell, a grave was closer to the Underworld, further from Heaven, and not easy to dig six months of the year because of frozen ground. I would not be surprised to find that for an extended period after the Baptism of the Rus, locals told the priest that a bonfire was needed to thaw the ground for burial, whereupon they cremated the body in secret and buried an empty coffin with the priest in attendance.
Hell must have been another problem, as fire was sacred to the Slavs, and cold was death. I am not sure how much of a threat burning in Hell was to most Slavs.
It was probably similar to imprisoning an Orthodox monk. Prison would be a general improvement in living conditions for most Orthodox monks, who tended to live in hand-dug caves with barely enough room to crouch in. Death: Homicide and suicide were the only types of death that were not considered natural.
All other causes were considered the will of one god or another. Sacrifices: The usual ritual sacrifice amounted to a barbeque, with the animals burned, and then eaten by the congregation.
Most gods were satisfied with a 'cockerel past crowing', but sometimes, goats, sheep, and cattle were needed. Veles wasn't into poultry. Human sacrifice was not a feature of the old Slavic religion. Temples: Early 'temples' for most ritual sects consisted of an oak grove surrounded by a circle of stones, or a moat.
Some featured statues, but there did not seem to be an absolute requirement for images. It was much later, near cities, that buildings were constructed for worship, and images became a regular feature. The early circles tended to be for a single god, while the buildings were polytheistic.
Oak trees: The hardwood oak tended to be struck more often by lightning, provided long burning fuel for the winter fires, was the source of charcoal for forges, and provided animal feed in the form of acorns.
It was sacred to all the major gods. Bears:The primary use of bears in elder times was to locate bee hives. The Slavs traded honey to the Vikings, who used it to make mead an alcoholic drink made from honey, drunk esp. Major Holidays: The Equinoxes were the major Slavic holidays. Rations would have been short for the Spring Equinox, but people would celebrate the coming warmth and begin their preparations for planting. There was more food in the Fall, but the Black God's victory was a warning of the hard times to come.
This was the cycle of Slavic life: Times are hard, but will get better; Times are good, but will soon get worse.
Almost everywhere Perun is considered the supreme god. His name is derived from Indo - European root "perk", "parg" hit, strike which developed into pan-Slavic "pierun", "perun" - a thunder, a lightning.Zagreb: Liber.
What is at work here is a split in the experience of the feminine: one endangers a man, the other saves him. Sedakova, I. Chart 2 13 The saddest thing is that 20 students answered that they had not heard about the existence of Slavic mythology and 8 of them do not even care. Though not named 3 explicitly, it can be deduced this is a reference to the deity known as Perun in later historic sources, as in many Slavic languages today Polish 'piorun' for example.
Lightning and fire gods were also common. Patronek, Slavinski,, Voith et al,, Voith et al,, Patronek et al,. Burial rituals: The early Slavs cremated the dead to help the soul rise up to Heaven, also a reasonable practice when bears and wolves live in the area. Ljudska priroda se ne menja, ali mozemo svet uciniti boljim mestom, tako sto bismo bili svesni onoga sto smo pre lose uradili.
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