PARAGLIDING A PILOTS TRAINING MANUAL PDF
Wills Wing has released a new 8th edition of its very popular book, Paragliding – A Pilot's Training Manual. The 8th edition includes an expanded Bonus DVD. guide to help a beginner understand paragliding. Prerequisites . To compete in this sport, the player must have adequate license for paragliding and all. As a paraglider pilot you will have undergone a course of training with your national . however, always remain the pilot in charge and our instructions are to be.
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do occur in paragliding, even to trained pilots using proper equipment. No claim is with personal flight instructions by a qualified paragliding instructor. No one. Paragliding - A Pilot's Training Manual is a complete resource for both new students of paragliding and experienced pilots looking to expand their knowledge. As pilots we fully understand just how big an investment a new paraglider is. We know that It is essential that you read this manual before flying your wing for the first time. The manual will Be ready to continue your learning by attending advanced courses to follow the evolution of our sport, . manual for instructions).
Other materials used in a modern canopy include webbing and Mylar. Webbing loops form tabs to attach the suspension lines. Mylar is stiff sheeting of polyester which is sometimes placed near the leading edge to help keep the openings open. Mylar triangles are typically sewn in the front of the ribs for this purpose. Kevlar is low and extremely strong. Some lines are made of called Dyneema in Europe which is manufactured fiber. Spectra has some change length so it is often only used for short of line.
It has better flex properties than Kevlar. All lines are covered by a woven protective called a sheath. This coating is usually made of ester and is not considered to be part of the stre: The coating is colored and sometimes colors are used on the different sets of lines to identify them.
Most suspension lines cascade or rate into smaller diameter lines near the Typically they are 2. Two millimeters equals. The webbing and risers are ly formed from Dacron webbing material.
The quick links are steel and the biners are specially forged aluminum or steel with redundant strength.
All harnesses incorporate clips or clasps for easy entry and exit. They have adjustable straps for big or little thighs, big or little shoulders. The attachments are usually obtained from the parachuting or climbing industry are very strong and reliable.
You will note that the harness webbing is together in places to form loops or connections. The sewing uses Dacron and on a properly constructed harness is incredibly strong. When your body is suspended from the seemingly diaphanous wing, the der web lines and the cloth swing seat, you can rest assured that it has been ed and will easily handle ten times your weight! When you start out in a school your instructor generally takes care of storing and the initial handling of the glider and associated equipment.
In Chapter 11 we again go into more care detail so you are in the know and up to speed when you get your own wings. Figure summarizes potential glider damage. That comes from the sun. For that reason we suggest you keep a canopy in its car- rying pack or tote sack until you're ready to use it. When it is lying around, bunching it up is better than leaving it spread out, and putting it in the shade somewhere is better yet.
Typically, hours of exposure to sunlight is considered the limit to safe use of a canopy. Heat is the second environmental threat to a glider's life. Paragliders should never be stored in enclosed cars or trunks that are left to bake in the tropical desert sun. They should also not be transported near an engine or exhaust that can heat them beyond ambient temperature.
Treat a glider like you would a puppy and it will be your long-term friend. Finally, moisture can deteriorate a glider, mainly the canopy. Always store it in a cool, dry place. Rain and a dunking in the pond will normally not hurt your wing-nylon is fairly impervious to moisture. However, if the canopy is stored wet, mildew may form that can do a nice job of rotting nylon. Dry it before storing. Also, a canopy filled with water and pulled out of a lake or carried can stretch due to the water weight.
We provide more information in Water Landings in Chapter Salt water causes additional problems and requires special attention which we cover in Chapter 11, page Here's what to avoid: A rock or hard surface below' the stepped on part ' Causes of Glider Damage can easily damage it.
Beginning Wings and Gear 1 - 19 - damage. If you must get close to the canopy and step through lines, open up. The buckles or hard points can damage the soft stuff. Many pilots lean against their packed while waiting for the wind to make up its mind, but a full-body sit is ill-advised.. If the line is on something-a stick or part of your gear--exercise patience and free it the point of entanglement, even if you have to get out of the harness to do so.
The only solution is to untangle and toss the If you merely try to shake them loose, they may drop and get tangled again. Thoms and sharp sticks are particularly hannful to a canopy.
Carefully where you are going to lay out the canopy and avoid or remove sharp objects. However, you are just learning to fly and will not be totally able to contacting the ground with the canopy, sometimes hard. The price of your includes this expected wear and tear on the equipment as well as expert training. Take as good care of the training gliders you use as you possibly can, for it is to develop proper habits for the near future when you will have your own equ1ipn1ent One of the beauties of paragliding is that it doesn't require much gear other than glider and hainess.
In fact, for training that's it, other than a helmet, proper and gloves. Here we'll include a few other items that we cover. A trip a tumble can send you on your head in instances.
Besides, it is good to get used to helmet from the beginning so you are able with the slight change in sound and of view by the time you are ready for flights. Your instructor will supply a helmet your training. Later you will have to download own. A good hard-shell helmet with an crushable foam lining is the type. The hard shell deflects blows and inner foam provides shock absorption. At PART 1: Beginning Flight 1 inch 2.
Some pilots prefer an open-face helmet, but a full-face helmet may offer more protection. The front mouthpiece of a full-face helmet may reduce your ability to feel the wind on your face. Snaps and other protrusions on a helmet tend to catch lines especially when you are looping risers over your head for a reverse inflation-see Chapter 4 , it is best to remove protrusions or download a helmet without them.
Hockey, cycling and climbing helmets rarely provide enough protection for flying. Motorcycle helmets tend to be too heavy. The helmets made specifically for paragliding are ideal. You can find them available through your school or in magazines devoted to the sport. Their main feature is stiff ankle support, like a light ski boot. Obviously you can't run in these boots as fast as you can with your Nikes, but you can run plenty fast enough for takeoff. Most instructors don't expect you 'to download boots just to take lessons, but if you have a form of hiking boots that support the ankles, you may consider using them.
However, you should not use boots with open lacing hooks, since these hooks readily catch the paraglider lines. Running shoes are also generally OK for the initial lessons, especially in a carefully controlled training situation. In any case, ask your instructor what he or she recommends. You don't want to wear heavy expedition boots but neither do you want to use sandals. Gloves are advised even in warm weather to prevent abrasion to your hands from the risers during launch and the control toggles during flight.
Of course, you can fly if you forget them, but a pair of light gloves when it's warm and heavy gloves when it's not is highly recommended;. Your instruments are your eyes, ears and sense of touch. But as soon as you begin flying high, even in the training stages, you may have instruments strapped on by your instructor. Here's a brief description of what you may encounter.
Radios - We use radios very frequently in paragliding. Instructors guide students and pilots team fly with other pilots. In some countries the radio frequencies are HAM or business channels e. In others it's aircraft or special- ly assigned channels e.
Your instructor will have radios to use when necessary. Before downloading your own radio you should find the frequency range appropriate for your area of flying. If you get the wrong radio, it will end up as a very expensive paper weight or a door stop.
Airspeed Indicators- An airspeed indicator does what the name says: The same instrument can also serve as a wind speed indicator on the ground. Beginning Wings and Gear 1 - '. Use a wind meter like this as often as you can to help you learn to judge the wind speed by its feel on your bopy and its effect on the surroundings trees, bushes, grass, etc.
Your instructor may hook an airspeed indicator on your harness to help you perceive your airspeed when you begin flying high. Altimeter - An altimeter is an instru- ment that measures barometric pres- sure the air's pressure is lower the higher you go and tells you how high you are above a set point.
An altimeter is often the first instrument a new pilot acquires. Variometer- A variometer also measures the barometric pressure but it measures the rate of change of this pressure and thus it can tell how fast you are going up or down. Pilots use this instrument to tell how fast they are climbing in lift or how fast they are sinking. You do not need such an instrument in your training pro- gram, but as soon as you begin to learn soaring, a variometer is a valuable aid.
Note that most variometers today include an altimeter and often an airspeed indicator. There are many models to choose from with many varied features. Used instruments are usually available to help reduce costs. Enlist the advice of a trust- ed experienced pilot before investing in such items. This chapter is devoted to bringing you a little closer to your first experience of floating through the sky. Familiarization with your equipment helps you better understand the communications of your instructor.
When he yells "pull the rear risers", you can comply immediately once you know where they are.
The main points to remember are the names of the canopy, leading edge, control lines, risers and harness. These are the items that will be repeatedly referred to at the hill. Also, don't forget the guidelines on care. It is not hard to imagine that the propeller or flapping pulls them through the air so that the wings can develop lift and hold them aloft.
But what about gliding craft with no engine such as sailplanes, hang gliders and paragliders? Why don't they fall? More mysteriously, how do they manage to climb? We'll answer these important questions in this chapter. Here you will discover the secrets of how wings work in general and how a paraglider works specifical- ly. The understanding you develop here is important throughout all of your flying experience for the more you understand what makes a paraglider fly, the more you will be able to avoid danger and excel as a pilot.
This chapter is an introduction for beginner students. Later in Chapter 12, we will provide more details to go along with your expanded knowledge and skill. A paraglider comes in a big wad that emerges from a bag, then lies on the ground. There's not a bone in its body. But suddenly, magically it leaps into the air and behold, a semi-solid wing arcs above us to obey our bidding.
Perhaps one of the greatest mysteries of all to people first seeing paragliding is how the wings inflate and stay inflated. Let's clear up that mystery. On it can be created by a wind moving across the ground,. If there is no , wind but you ride along, you again feel a wind. This wind is the relative wind you have created.
Now if you pedal along into a wind blowing toward you, you will feel even more relative wind. On the other harid, if you travel with the wind behind you, you may adjust your speed so you feel no wind at all. The relative wind you feel is zero even though there is an actual wind blowing.
Figure helps you get the picture. Relative wind felt is zero bike speed minus tail wind. Whereas the bicycle is in contact with. Therefore the glider's speed over the ground varies with the wind direction and strength in relation to the glider's flying airspeed. First all wings require a cer- tain minimum relative wind or airflow in order to produce the necessary lift.
Secondly, since our wings need a relative flow to inflate and lift us away from the hill, we must always take off fac- Figure Relative Wind ing into the wind. If for example, we try to take off with a wind behind us, we will encounter what we experienced on our bicycle with the wind behind us: We added the landing part in the rule not because it is necessary to fly into the wind to maintain inflation, but because flying into the wind slows our speed down in relation to the ground.
In Chapter 5 and Chapter 8 we will get a better understanding of landing matters. For now we must develop the idea that the wind the glider's wing "feels" is the relative wind. Once the glider is up in the air it produces the nee- PART 1: Beainnina Fliaht w.
Even with a tail wind our wings will glide and produce their own relative wind. We can summarize our discussion: A 'glider's groundspe!
You will note that the groundspeed gure Why It Flies. Figure Glider Inflation which is different from the bicycle situation. Concepts such as stalls, ground tracking, control, stability, takeoffs and landings all depend on relative wind or groundspeed or both.
For example, now we can immediately see why we must takeoff and land facing into the wind: Follow figure as we offer a brief description.
As we see in a , the wind enter- ing the front of the canopy beg'ins inflation and a little lift is produced by the air flowing over it we describe lift and drag in the next section. If there is no wind, the same thing happens at a slightly slower rate since pulling the canopy forward creates a relative wind. Also, note that just the leading edge ofthe canopy is being pulled initially since it is laid out so the leading edge is furthest from the pilot.
Next we see in b that the process has continued. The glider continues to inflate and lift due mainly to the flow at the leading edge area. Now a force oppos- ing the forward pull on the lines has set up.
This force can be felt by the pilot as b a resistance to his or her forward run. It is due mainly to the drag of the canopy. Note we have shown a stalled area. This is where the air is not flowing smoothly. In c the entire canopy is off the ground. More lift is being created so it accel- erates rapidly upward. Also the force opposing the pilot's forward run is at a max- imum.
Finally, in d the canopy has nearly reached the apex of its arc above the pilot. Typically it reaches this point in 2 seconds. The drag force has greatly diminished, lift force has increased, and smooth airflow has been established over most of the wing. The pilot is ready to commit aviation.
Beginning Flight ,: Forming a Wing Let's take a closer look at what keeps a wing inflated and in good shape. First turn to figure Here we see the airflow in flight above and below a cross-sec- tion of the wing similar to that shown in figure We also see the flow entering the front openings. The air here doesn't flow continuously, but builds up pressure to a certain level then stops flowing. It initially flows into the canopy to inflate it then becomes stagnant. However, the pressure is maintained by the flow trying to get inside the canopy much like the airflow when you fill your car tire.
Once the pressure in the tire equals that in the air hose the flow stops into the tire. Figure continued: Why It Flies 1 - 27 - I- "-Huw much pressure builds up in the wing depends on how fast you are flying and how the cell openings are oriented to the flow.
The air flows sideways through the crossports. Once inflation is complete the internal flow stops and the entire wing is at the same internal pressure. Another form of air pressure is called static pressure. This pressure is simply due to the weight of the atmosphere. The average static pressure ofthe air at sea level is It is mainly the effects of dynamic pressure that keep our wings flying.
Initial Inflation Flow. You can see this effect on a windsock when it flaps in higher winds. Better yet, take a plastic bag and hold it open into the wind.
It will fill with air and pull out to hold its shape. Now cut open the back of the bag and hold it open into the wind. You will see that it is much less inclined to hold its shape. So internal pressure is the first thing that helps a paraglider wing hold its form. We should note that in order for the wing to deflate it has to expel air from inside which takes a bit of time.
Also, the volume of air inside a paraglider weighs between 6 and 10 lbs 2. This air weight combined with the canopy weight gives it a certain amount of inertia during maneuvering and in turbulence. In some ways the air mass inside the canopy can help maintain its shape. Look at figure which shows a canopy head on. We have drawn arrows to represent the lift forces on the wing.
This outward angling produces out- ward forces that serve to pull the tips outward. If a canopy was made to lie flat as shown, the slight inward force of the suspension lines or variations in the air would pull the tips in like an accordion. Now we must turn our attention to the details of how our wings fly. Outward Lift Helps Keep Canopy Open Watch a big bird's slow wing beats and it's easy to imagine that it is rowing against the air.
But suddenly it stops flapping, and still it glides along, barely los- ing altitude. It is apparent that something is holding the bird up. That something is a force we call lift, which is developed by the wings. To understand how a wing produces lift, simply realize that air is a fluid just like water. If you run your hand through water, you feel a force as the water is deflected.
In fact, the force you feel on your hand is exactly opposite to the force the water undergoes. You can feel the same effect in air, but you must move faster since air is so much less dense than water.
Try holding your hand out a car win- dow while driving at a moderate speed to feel lift force from the air. However, this flat surface is not very efficient because as it creates lift it also creates a lot of drag which retards the wing see below. Through much experimentation over the years, air- craft designers learned to model their wings after the birds and create an aiifoil.
The cross-sections of various airfoils are shown in fig- ure Note how the paraglider airfoil is a shape much like that of an airplane. The upper surface pulls the air down as it passes while the lower surface pushes it down. In fact, the airfoil plows some air ahead of it like the Lift-sum of all forces perpendicular to flight path. Forces in an Airfoil bow wake of a boat. This effect causes a slowing of the air below the wing and a speeding up of the air above the wing as the air moves out ofthe way of the passing wing.
If we realize that whatever force we impart to the air is equally imparted to the airfoil in the opposite direction Sir Isaac Newton's third law , we can depict the force along our airfoil. This is shown in figure with the top drawing showing the deflected airflow and the bottom draw- ing showing the forces the airfoil feels.
We now can define lift as the upward forces and drag as the rearward forces on our airfoil or wing. Think about it for a minute and you will see that we want to be creating as much lift as possible to sus- pend our airborne craft while producing as little drag as possible so our forward progress isn't impeded. This would be the case if we had a propeller to pull us along. However, if we are without an engine we must get our power from gravity. This isn't hard to understand if we imagine a tobog- Airfoil in gliding mode gan being pulled down a slope by gravity.
As figure shows, gravity pulling downward is translated to forward motion by the action of the toboggan sur- face on the snow or the airfoil on the air. I Angle of Attack Now we come to an important feature on our wings: The way we describe this effect is by the term angle of attack. The Pull of Gravity Figure illustrates an airfoil's angle of attack and shows various angles of attack. In a paraglider we control angle of attack and thus speed with the con- trollines.
If we release both lines the canopy accelerates and the trailing edge is Figure Different Angles of Attack level. Our angle of attack is low as shown. However, as we start applying control force, we pull down the trailing edge. This change increases the angle of attack because the canopy retards a bit in relation to our body.
In addition, the angle of the wing is measured with the straight line drawn from the trailing edge to the leading edge defined in Chapter 2 as the chord. You can see from the fig- ure that the more control line we apply the greater the angle of attack. Also, the more the airflow will be deflected as it passes over the wing. With a high angle of attack we fly slowly while a lower angle of attack results in faster flying speeds.
Think again of the toboggan sliding faster down a steeper hill. If this were not so, we ;"' would not be able to fly comfortably because we would be constantly making ' rections to stay on top of things. Figure shows the balance.
Weight of pressure and center of mass of glider and pilot flying system at the center of mass. The vertical arrow is the total of all the lift and drag forces on the wing. We call this the resultant since it is the result of the net aerodynamic caused by the airflow forces. The location of the resultant is called the cen- ter of pressure, which makes sense when we recall that lift and drag are created by deflection pressures.
We have also illustrated the lift and drag forces with arrows. Note that lift is not pointing directly up since we are not flying horizontally.
Actually, since both lift and drag are part of the overall aero- dynamic forces on the wing, we need to define them better. By convention: Forces Applied to Paraglider A paraglider is a small aircraft with great control possibilities. We can speed up, slow down and turn. First let us see how we can affect our glider's speed. All properly designed aircraft should seek a steady-state trim speed and stay at that speed in smooth air conditions.
With a paraglider, trim speed occurs with the hands held up to apply zero force on the control lines.
On a training glider this speed is a comfortable flying speed that your instructor will have you experience over and over again.
On a more advanced glider trim speed is a faster mode of flight which is rarely or never used because the low angle of attack reduces inflation When we are flying at trim, the angle of attack of the wing is determined by the rela- tive length of the suspension lines. The manufacturer determines these lengths and thus the angle of attack and trim flying speed.
In steady flight our body weight is directly below the wing's center of pressure. From illustration we can see that this center is located in the front part of the wing. Thus, we can expect that the front lines Ns and B's cany more weight than the rear ones. In fact, these lines are often oflarger diameter. Beginning Flight Figure Control Positions.
By now you have probably surmised that you do this by applying a pull on your control lines. Here we will not go into too much detail about speed control, for later we discuss it with a view of how to achieve the best performance.
Suffice it to say that you must learn a few important control positions initially, then later you'll develop a more thorough understanding of how to fine-tune your airspeed. We have already discussed trim speed. We'll call this position "off controls.
We give it this name because it's a good speed for flying close to the terrain and turning. This speed is set with the controls about at your eyes. We'll refer to the position as "quarter controls. Wing is stalled. This control position is only used during edge is pulled significantly. Stall may occur near this position. A stall is even more serious in a paraglider because it usually results in a loss of the wing's shape and position above you.
Only experts attempt stalls in very careful- ly controlled situations over water usually. What is a stall? Simply put, a stall occur when our angle of attack gets so high that the airflow cannot make the great change of direction required to follow the contour of the upper surface.
As a result, the smooth flow separates from the wing, swirls or eddies result, drag increases greatly and lift dies away. Figure 3- 14 illustrates some of these effects. The fact that airspeed is related directly to angle of attack means that a stall occurs at a given airspeed for any given wing with the same loading as long as we aren't accelerating.
Therefore you will often hear pilots speaking of a glider's stall speed. For a paraglider this speed is typically from 13 to 15 mph 21 to 24 krnlh and possibly slightly less for a training glider. A beginner paragliding pilot should not lower the controls below his or her shoulders and should fly mostly with the controls at eye level to avoid stalls, except during landings.
We learn more about landings in Chapter 5. When your paraglider stalls you typically lose control over your glider and lose altitude as well.
Different types of stalls and stall recovery are covered in later chap- ters. For now we must be aware of stalls and avoid them during our training and throughout our flying career. Fortunately, this is an easy thing to do for the most part. To avoid stalls, remember the first commandment of flight: Beginning Flight For left turn pilot pulls down left control.
Parapente - The Art Of Paragliding.pdf
For a more efficient tum, the opposite control should be raised. For the most efficient tum, weight shift toward the turning side should be added.
Thrn Control Variations. I A Good Turn Turns are fun and functional. Naturally, we want to be able to go where our heart desires and turns do the trick. Turns have a wide variety of techniques and practices which we'lllearn in later chapters. Here we'll simply point out how a turn is pro- duced on the glider so you understand the principle when you start doing them. The simplest way to perform a turn is to maintain good airspeed controls at eye level and pull down on one toggle.
Figure a shows the effect on the glid- er. The wing with the pulled down trailing edge experi- ences more drag a higher angle of attack so it slows and you turn toward that side. A more efficient turn or coordinated turn is accom- plished if you pull down on one control toggle while raising the other as in b.
This procedure has the effect of allowing the outside wing to speed up for a smoother turn. The final technique we'll mention is adding a weight-shift. This method involves twisting your hips so your weight sits on the buttock which is on the side you want to turn towards c.
The effect is to pull down the risers on that side while allowing the risers on the opposite side to rise a bit.
Paragliding A Pilots Training Manual
The wing then more readily enters a bank angle and rolls. You will learn that you can turn a glider by weight shift alone, but weight shift combined with the dual control input method is the most efficient turn. Why It Flies 1 - 35 - ; - A bank and a roll mentioned above are essentially the same thing. When one wing tip goes up and the other down, the wing is banked and has rolled.
Figure shows what we mean by bank angle or roll with a rear view of a glider. Note that we.. Later, when we learn to turn. We have begun our study of how paraglider wings work and behave in the air. We presented many ideas which may take some thought, but the reward is an easier grasp of the practical side of flying.
Soon, when you learn to perform controls you will already understand how they work. Such a good start may accelerate your learning and at the very least let you know that your glider flies on the basis of the timeless laws of physics and is a dependable aircraft indeed.
There are many more things to learn about the glider's relationship with the air, but this knowledge will come later as you gain experience and we add insights a bit at a time. Learning such as this with its potential to produce real pleasure is not a chore.
As you study, keep thinking how you will relate what you are learn- ing to your aerial experience. Next we try our wings. Beginning Flight " The centipede was happy quite, until a toad in fun, Said, 'Pray, which leg after which?
This is our first hands-on expe- rience where we will be making the canopy fly. The learning is easy and fun, but we have to progress in little steps or the canopy is likely to end up at our feet in a tangle of synthetic line and cloth looking more like laundry than a wing.
But don't worry, in a few tries you'll be inflating the canopy with reliability and floating it as if it were a balloon. That's the beauty of paragliding-it's so easy to learn.
But this ease oflearning is a bit deceiving. The truth is you can learn to fly in a day, and no doubt you will be flying on your ftrst outing. However, there are many safety-related matters to attend to that require time, thought and practice in order to master. So, as we begin our skill development, you'll notice two things: In fact, these two items will be a recurrent theme throughout all the practical skill development in this book. It is our goal to make them your guiding principle throughout your entire flying experience.
The first part of practical flying is taking a glider out of its carrying bag and open- ing it out properly. In training, as in later flight, you normally lay the canopy out in position to launch, so here we'll learn the proper laying out practice.
Flight Familiarization 1 - 37 - we'lllearn how to check out the entire glider in a thorough manner which is a preflight. Your Goal: To learn to properly open and stow a glider as well as lay it detangle lines and preflight it. I Spreading Your Wings The first thing we do at a training site or flying hill is check the wind. Once , we're satisfied it's fine not too strong, not too gusty, not too cross we locate a clear place to lay out our canopy with the correct orientation.
Upright sticks weeds or oversized rocks are problems because they don't allow the canopy to flat and may snag lines or fabric when you attempt to pull the wing up. When you begin, you may not,be able to judge how much space you need to spread your wing, so normally your instructor will help you.
Now open up the pack and pull out the canopy. The harness may be separate. If it's separate, set it aside. Place the canopy. The leading edge should be placed at the furthest downwind point in the. You can identity the leading edge because it has the cell openings and. Unfold the long bundle as shown and make sure the cigar-shaped package is oriented perfectly parallel to the wind.
Next roll out one wing and then the other. From the figure you can see that the canopy is lying on its back the upper surface with the trailing edge upwind. This is the proper launch position. Once the wings are spread-eagled on the ground, double-check to make sure the leading edge is furthest downwind the direction away from your intended heading and the trailing edge is upwind or facing the launch direction.
You'll probably only make the mistake of opening up backwards once-it's embarrass- ing! This orientation will allow you to pull the canopy up and move into the wind. If the harness is still attached, gen- tly lift it off and detangle any lines hooked on the harness protrusions. Walk the harness away from the canopy in the upwind direction until the lines are almost fully extended.
If the harness is separate from the rest of the glider, locate the ris- ers, lift them gently and extend them upwind nearly full length of the lines one at a time. Before we can proceed we must make sure all the lines are in proper order and not entangled. Several things can occur during the packing and unpacking.
The lines may entangle amongst themselves remember those fishing reel snarls when you were a kid or they may catch up on part of the harness. If the harness is removed the risers may twist or loop through some of the lines.
The way to correct the above problems is to perform a line check. The simplest way to do this check is to stand facing the canopy with the risers of one side in your hand with the harness attached, let it dangle. Move toward the canopy if necessary so you have enough slack and lift the A riser as shown in figure How do you know what the A riser is? It's the one attached to the lines going to the canopy's leading edge.
Since the leading edge is furthest away from you, the A lines will be the tightest. Also note that often the A riser will be identified by a color patch sewn on it near the quick link. Although some gliders have color-coded lines, it is important for you to learn to sort out the risers by their relationships to one another whether they are slack, under tension or overhead.
Finding the correct riser without having to look at it is an important skill, much like reaching for the stick shift of your car without look- ing. Begin learning this skill at once by thinking correctly about riser relation- ships: First lift the A riser and check to make sure there are no twists or entanglement in the A lines. Occasionally some of the other lines may be looped over the As and be held in a sort of slip knot. Shake the A lines to try to remove any entan- glement.
If the knot doesn't shake out, lay the risers and lines on the ground and walk in to undo the knot by hand. Be careful--don't step on the lines! Once the A lines are worry-free, lift all the risers and pull the control lines out from the bottom and to the side as shown in figure Flight Familiarization , - Hold riser bundle and pull control lines to the side to clear. Line Clearing 0- Riser and lines properly laid out.
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Note A riser on top. Beginning Flight sary to free the control lines. Again, if any unshakable snags exist, set things down lilld go fix them by hand. Now repeat the process with the other side. In the process of clearing the A lines, you should look at the other lines and check to see that they are generally clear. If major knotting occurred in the Ns, chances are there are knots in the others as well. You can check them by holding each riser up with the A riser, one after another.
You can even put a checked riser over your head to hold it while you go on the check the next one. The most serious problem occurs when the risers are packed free from the har- ness and they loop through some lines. The result is some lines or risers are twist- ed and some may not be. The whole problem can be confusing until you learn the simple technique: Put riser end through risers that are twisted in opposite directions Figure Untwisting Lines and Risers Preventing twisted lines by stowing them carefully is the best policy see our later discussion.
If you think for a moment, you'll see that the horseshoe shape mimics the arced shape of the canopy in flight. If you were to lay the canopy straight on the ground, the suspension lines at the tips would be tighter than those in the center.
Make sure lines are clear at the tip To create the horseshoe shape, lay the canopy out nonnally thim move the risers or harness closer to the canopy so you don't drag them. Now move to the leading edge of the canopy and pull it downwind away from the harness 2 to 3 feet. Move out either side of the center and pull the canopy back a little to make a nice rounded horseshoe shape. The tips should stay where they were originally. While horseshoeing the canopy, make sure you don't cause a lineover see Preflight below.
Also, try to leave the center section of the leading edge standing up a bit see Building a Wall under the heading Reverse Launches later in this chapter. However, we will discuss it here because you may be practicing with a glider in ground school first, and at this point the arrangement of the canopy is fresh in your mind. When you are ready to put your glider away, lay it out on its back lower sur- face up with the long axis of the canopy parallel to any significant wind as shown in figure Next you must place all the lines on your canopy as shown.
The eas- iest way to do this is to grab the riser bundle and whip the lines up on the canopy with a gentle motion. Often parts ofthe lines remain beyond the canopy edge, so PART 1: Begin with upwind side first so the rolled side holds the down- wind side in place. Push air out as you proceed, but do not put weight on leading edge Mylar. Make first fold about height of carry sack. Try not to create too tight a wad lines, for they will all be folded or rolled in the next steps. On older pilots would braid the lines to keep them from tangling.
This procedure is advised with the new stiff lines for excess flexing can reduce their life. Now place the risers if separated from the harness or harness near the edge of the canopy as shown in figure With the harness attached, it just to one side of the centerline since we'll be folding the canopy along the terline.
If the risers are separate, let them protrude beyond the trailing edge shown in method 2. Keep them separate and straight to prevent line twists. Now pack up the canopy. There are two recommended methods: Start by folding the stabilizer tip in an. Folding consists of taking the tip and walking it to the center ofthe canopy.
In windy conditions you can tuck the tip of the second side under the first side roll so it doesn't blow around. Which method should you use? Rolling keeps the lines from sliding around in the packing process better than folding. It is also perhaps a bit easier to do when alone.
Folding is usually faster. Some canopies with leading edge stiffeners may suffer less bending when rolled as opposed to folded. Follow your instructor's or owner's manual's guidance in this matter. The next step is to fold one side over the other as shown in figure Finally fold the long bundle from the trailing edge to the leading edge in lengths that are equal to the desired finish length this is largely determined by the pack or bag length and is typ- ically 2 to 2Y2 feet 60 to 75 em.
Always fold from the trailing edge to the leading edge so the air can escape the canopy interior. As you make these last folds, smooth out the bundle and press it down to evacuate trapped air or you will end up with too big a bun- dle but don't crush the leading edge Mylar.
If the harness is separated from the risers we suggest putting it in the carrying pack firSt so it somewhat protects the canopy. Reverse inflating involves facing the canopy with your back to the wind as you inflate it. The benefit is that you can watch the canopy throughout the entire infla- tion process and can float it above you before you attempt a launch.
This view allows you to check for a good inflation-no line snags, no sticks and no folds- before committing to the air. Even though we teach preach looking up to check the canopy during a forward launch it is difficult to assess and correct problems while you are running.
Thus, with a forward inflation it is almost always neces- sary to abort the run when a malfunction is detected, especially on a steep slope. The drawback of a reverse inflation is that you must turn around at some point while maintaining control. However, despite this drawback, we recommend that PART 1: To learn how to prepare your glider and your positioning for inflat- ing and later launching from the reverse position.
Pilot on the right performs a reverse inflation. The pilot on the left has inflated and turned to face forward. I Putting on the Harness Climbing into the harness seems like a no-brainer, but there is at least important point to make. Start this good habit now and keep it throughout your flying Figure shows the general steps to putting on the harness.
These items may be confusing if you haven't used them before. Start with one side first, then pull the entire smaller rec.
Removing these buckles is the reverse procedure: Make a tightness adjustment on the strap if necessary. Leg straps should be barely snug or a bit looser. You should feel com- fortable for running. The chest strap should be adjusted so that the strap is tight when the upright straps that hold the carabiner loops are straight not pulled in.
Chest strap adjustment affects control and stabili- ty, and we cover it in Chapter 9. Put anns through the shoulder straps Figure Reverse Inflation Turn Direction Figure Right-Handed Riser Arrangement. Before you can begin, it is necessary to make a life decision: The turn direction you use determines how the risers are rout- ed to the harness.
We called it a life decision only half in jest because whichever way you learn is the way you should use throughout your flying career.
The turn- around must be an automatic process that you do the same way every time. We'll make the decision for you. If you are right-handed, always turn toward the left counterclockwise when viewed from above when you start from the reverse position and are rotating to face away from the canopy to begin your run. Conversely, left-handed pilots should turn right out of the reverse position clockwise when viewed from above as figure shows.
Since a 'chute should be mounted on the side of the dominant hand, a right hander will have the 'chute on the right and his or her left side will be next to the pas- senger as the turn is completed to the left. Simple logic, isn't it? Now here are the steps for attaching the risers properly so everything is magically untangled when the canopy inflates above you and you turn forward to launch.
We deal first with right-handers, then left-ban- ders for simplicity. Right-handed reverse attachment - The general arrangement is shown in figure The illustration shows that the riser array " CH 4: Flight Familiarization 1 - 47 - Figure Right-Handed Riser Hookup coming from the pilot's right side it is actually the canopy's left riser routes across to the pilot's left side and on the top.
The other riser array routes the pilot's right side and is on the bottom. If you think of the canopy lifting you, then turning left to face forward, this all makes sense. There is one more thing you must do to the risers before hooking them to harness.
Now we'll walk you through the process step by step. Once your harness is on, stand facing the canopy with the risers laid out neat- ly at your feet. The A risers should be on top as shown in figure Attach it to the harness by looping it through the carabin- er on your right side see Carabiner Hookup below.
If you have any doubt as to how the risers should orient, remember the poetic phrase: The A s are away, the rears are near. Top View Take the riser on the left side, give it a half twist to the left counterclockwise and attach it to the cara- biner on your right side.
Left-Handed Riser Hookup 3. Attach them to your harness at the left carabiner 4. Finally, in the future if you have a speed system to hook up, route the speed rope to the A riser that is on its same side left speed rope on the left side riser in the most direct manner no twists or wraps around any other riser or line as shown.
Hook the rope to the link provided on the A riser. With a front mounted parachute the speed rope must route behind the parachute bridle. Left-handed reverse attachment - This process is the mirror image of the right- handed one.
Figure 4-l 0 shows the overall look and the steps. In this case, the riser array on your left side coming from the canopy's right half is routed over the one coming from your right side.
The top array goes to your right carabiner and the bottom array goes to your left. This time it is to the right clockwise. Here's a stepwise account: Start with the risers placed at your feet and the A risers on top. Take riser on the left side, pull it over the other riser group, give it a half twist to the right clockwise and attach it to the carabiner on your right side.
Flight Familiarization 1 - 49 - it to the carabiner on your left side see Carabiner Hookup below. Now attach it to the right carabiner. If you have a speed system hookup, route the speed rope to the A riser that is on its same side left speed rope on the left side riser in the most direct manner no twists , or wraps around any other riser or line-see parachute bridle note on page When you are attaching your risers, it is important to take a step or two forward: In general, carabiners are oriented at an angle when viewed from above as shown not fore-and-aft or side-to-side.
The focus is on presenting technical subject matter in a manner that is easy for the average pilot to comprehend without the need for complex theory or equations. The authors emphasize safety throughout with techniques for risk management and dealing with common emergency scenarios.
Master pilot and paragliding instructor Rob McKenzie of High Adventure Hang Gliding and Paragliding has characterized it as "Probably about the simplest layout of the concepts of gliding flight ever written. A terrific reference book and training supplement for the beginner through intermediate pilot. Wills Wing brought onboard paraglider pilots Mark Stucky and Tim Meehan to create a complete revision with an entirely new look, additional subject matter and new illustrations.
The 8th edition has been further enhanced, especially the DVD. Mark Stucky, who began his aviation career in hang gliding, is a professional military and NASA test pilot and member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, whose flight test experience ranges from sub 20 mph speeds in paragliders to beyond Mach 3 in the SR 71 Blackbird.
He is best known in the foot-launched soaring community for his informative technical articles and flight reviews in Hang Gliding magazine. Mark has updated the technical content of the manual and greatly expanded the scope of the subjects covered. He is the creative force responsible for the new layout and professional illustrations.
It is such a great book, we decided that every new student should have one.Watching the canopy and controlling it in the right sense.
A fantastic book Mark Andrews Canada: The following description will answer most of your questions. When your paraglider stalls you typically lose control over your glider and lose altitude as well. The fact that airspeed is related directly to angle of attack means that a stall occurs at a given airspeed for any given wing with the same loading as long as we aren't accelerating.