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Bangladesh was top illicit capital out money are high in flower in the period of with the amount of USD The position of Bangladesh is second among the South Asian countries and 44th among the developing countries.

Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are ranked with 58, 94, and positions consequently which states that the highest amount of money has been laundered from Bangladesh. Global Financial Integrity, December The amount of unreported money is within 45 percent to 81 percent of gross domestic product in MoF, Shadow economy of Bangladesh as a percent of health care spending is 94 percent as total health care spending is USD million. Cost of tax evasion is Tk. Bangladesh is ranked as 65 under the consideration of total tax evasion but tax proportion as a health care spending, it is in the position of 74 TJN The persons who can pay tax Tk.

This type profit in the present of treatment reduces the incentive of paying tax and encourages treatment of unreported the evasion and avoidance. Aligned with the characteristic problem of involved behind low tax developing countries, the informal sector of Bangladesh has base in Bangladesh as well. The formal sector has long been unable to absorb new labourers. Total civilian labour force in Bangladesh grew from However, the formal sector employed only 9. On the other hand, the informal sector grew by Tax, Resource Mobilisation and Its Implications on Growth The inability to raise taxes at a higher rate is affecting the ability of the government to fund critical sectors for economic development.

Especially, expenditure on investment and social and physical sectors are the most suffered sectors. The correlation emphasises the at a higher rate is affecting necessity of government spending in the economy to boost up the ability of the the GDP growth. That means, taxing sectors for economic the economy to increase government expenditure in crucial development. Borrowing can take place from different domestic and international sources.

However, loans from domestic banking sector destabilise the financial market through increasing interest rate and crowding out private sector investment. At present, the scenario is more concerning as the economy has been trapped into a vicious cycle with high government borrowing of Tk. Non-tax revenue sources Non-tax revenue sources are not large enough in Bangladesh are not large enough in but there is scope to enlarge the size of revenue from the Bangladesh but there is available sources.

To comply with the necessity of higher scope to enlarge the size of revenue, the non-tax revenue sources need to improve the revenue from the available efficiency and accuracy. The deficit finance of loan from sources. Tax is the most reliable and largest source of government revenue.

Foreign aid in Bangladesh has been associated with three fold problems for the policymaking. The first one is uncertainty from international economy. Secondly, lower disbursement than commitment and the last one is increasing debt outstanding.

This consumption driven aggregate demand ends in high inflation and lower GDP growth contrasted with supply shortfall. Domestic savings to GDP ratio is much lower in Bangladesh.

Although national savings is somewhat above the domestic savings but still it is low. This lower savings have repeatedly failed to turn into investment in most of the years and in recent periods the gap has got larger Figure 7. As a result, capacity of the economy is in-built low level equilibrium trap.

The increased tax facilitates government to spend on infrastructure development and to invest directly in productive activities. The increased expenditure of government has two sided impact on GDP growth. First, to facilitate private sector investment through infrastructural development and second direct government investment accelerate output growth.

The targeted investment in the budget is Investment is the unique solution to overcome the shortfall of targeted growth. Public investment is increasing but with the cost of private investment. As a result total investment is not increasing at expected level. To increase private investment in line with public investment, public investment should play a more crucial role.

Doing this way is possible by following the public finance policy of government that keeps focus on tax income. Figure 7: Consumption, Savings and Investment Source: Ministry of Finance Moreover, real estate favouring investment Moreover, real estate favouring investment tendency instead of tendency instead of supporting other crucial sectors of industrialisation is supporting other crucial aggravating the existing problems.

For example, the pressure of sectors of industrialisation increasing population as well as income have contributed to a is aggravating the existing hasty growth of land prices, especially in the major problems.

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For example, between and , land prices in Dhaka city increased by an average of to percent per year. Allowing for the average inflation rate of 9 percent between and , real land prices in Dhaka have increased by a whopping 91 percent per year.

The pressure on the revenue sector is affecting the capacity to fund important areas of public spending. Social and physical infrastructure receives the lower allocation for lower tax collection. In the proposed budget of FY , The ADP allocation for human resource, agriculture and rural development has been reduced to 23 and Out of revenue expenditure, the highest expenses goes for subsidies and current transfer between 23 to 37 percent; and pay and allow hover between 16 and 24 percent in this period.

The next largest share is interest payment which is about 15 to 20 percent of revenue over this period. Next share for payment for goods and services is roaming between 9 to 15 percent and is in downward trend recently. Share is negligible in block expenditure, acquisition of assets and works, and development program. In recent period, investment in share and equity has been increased to 5. The rental payment for 32 short run private power suppliers is Tk. Trifling amount of revenue expenditure is used for social and structural improvement.

Out of total expenditure in FY Tk. In medium term between FY to FY , the target of government is to raise revenue by 0. In medium term outlook it is expected to increase ADP to 7.

NBR (Estabilidade de encostas).pdf

Current expenditure is expected to increase from 0. In this case, pay and allowances, goods and services, loans and grants is one of and interest payment are to increase by 0. Expected expenditure in FY is lower than or similar of rate for all these sectors MoF Problems with Deficit Financing Shortage of revenue to expenditure is financed from different domestic and international sources.

Foreign aid in the form of loans and grants is one of the important sources of deficit finance. In recent time the foreign loan is increasing sharply but not the grant Figure 8. This sharply risen foreign loan tends to increase the burden of service payment.

This type of foreign aid also increases the debt burden in terms of outstanding debt stock Figure 9. For example, the payment of interest rate has increased from Tk. In recent time government tends to borrow more from banking sector of Bangladesh. This type of borrowing crowds out the private sector through high interest rate and lacking of fund but can crowds in through investment in infrastructure.

Figure 8: Ministry of Finance The commitment of foreign aid is much high but actual The commitment and disbursement in most instances are not realisation is trifling. Currently this problem is paramount.

The commitment of foreign aid is much high but actual realisation is trifling. Although debt service payment is not much high but outstanding debt stock is much high and increasing over time Figure 9. Dependence on foreign aid has further drawbacks. There is uncertainty regarding foreign arises because of international economic condition, change in the economic policy of donor countries, and of other reasons. For financing development activities, more funds are required in Bangladesh than the country is presently able to collect.

Still, the available capacity must be utilised and then we can move forward to make use of the source of deficit finance.

Ministry of Finance 5. Although there are other sources, the revenue is mainly collected from tax. But the collection of tax in Bangladesh is not sufficient to keep up the economic activities at the optimum level.

To upraise the economic performance, higher tax collection from suitable sources therefore is of utmost importance. But in Bangladesh, the collection of tax is significantly lower for a number of reasons including lack of The study finds that the gap consciousness, honesty, sincerity, regulatory policy, structural between revenue collection reforms, and innovation.

If these problems can be solved with and expenditure is getting efficiency, the economy can perform at the optimum level. For the promising economic performance, this gap needs to be shrunk. To optimise economic performance through shrinking the gap between revenue collection and expenditure, two dimensional steps should be taken — one is from the revenue collection side and the other is from revenue spending. There is no alternative rather than to increase the size of tax base. New steps, therefore, should be included with present efforts to widen the tax base, especially through raising public awareness and ensuring imposition strict law and order.

For this purpose, investment in physical infrastructure as well as in social infrastructure, i. Regressive tax structure including indirect tax needs to be reconsidered. The study argues for more tax collection clearly and it clarifies the background causes of getting lower tax.

Efficient revenue mobilisation procedure might solve the background problem of lower tax and ensure the expected economic growth.

Dhaka, Bangladesh. Available at: Global Financial Integrity December Ministry of Finance MoF.

Ministry of Planning. Sixth Five Year Plan. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Gerscovich DMS. Estabilidade de taludes. Oficina de Textos; Biotechnical slope protection and erosion control. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; Biotechnical and soil bioengineering slope stabilization: Root anchorage of saplings and cuttings of woody pioneer species in a riparian environment. Functional Ecology ; 17 2: Is it possible to manipulate root anchorage in young trees.

Development and soil reinforcement characteristics of five native species planted as cuttings in local area of Beijing. Ecological Engineering ; Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes.

NBR - Emprego de terrenos reforcados.pdf

Slope stability and erosion control: Springer; Preti F, Giadrossich F. Root reinforcement and slope bioengineering stabilization by Spanish Broom Spartium junceum L. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences ; 13 9: Spatial characterization of root reinforcement at stand scale: Geomorphology ; Quantifying the role of vegetation in slope stability: Ecological Engineering ; 36 3: Root reinforcement of soils under compression.

Journal of Geophysical Research.

Earth Surface ; How vegetation reinforces soil on slopes. Waldron LJ. Shear resistance of root-permeated homogeneous and stratified soil.Available at: The aim of this work was to evaluate the development of shrub live cuttings and their effect on slope stability. Estabilidade de taludes. For example, the rate of growth of local taxes has been This consumption driven aggregate demand ends in high inflation and lower GDP growth contrasted with supply shortfall. Ministry of Finance 5.

Investigations of landslides on Prince of Wales Island:

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