CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING PDF
An Introduction to Client Server Computing. Pages Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science John M. Zelle, Ph.D. Version rc2 Fall. Client/Server is a term used to describe a computing model for the development of computerized systems. This model is based on the distribution of functions. Client-Server Computing is an environment that satisfies the business need by appropriately allocating the application processing between the Client & Server.
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The client knows how the data is organized and where it is. ▷ Different clients access the same applications different ways. ▷. Fat servers. ▷ The server more . What is Client/Server computing? Discuss the characteristics of. Client/Server system. Discuss the rightsizing and downsizing concept of the Client/Server. This trend has given rise to the architecture of the Client/Server Computing. The term Client/Server was first used in the s in reference to personal.
A server may serve multiple clients at the same time while a client is in contact with only one server. Both the client and server usually communicate via a computer network but sometimes they may reside in the same system. An illustration of the client server system is given as follows: Characteristics of Client Server Computing The salient points for client server computing are as follows: The client server computing works with a system of request and response.
The client sends a request to the server and the server responds with the desired information. The client and server should follow a common communication protocol so they can easily interact with each other. All the communication protocols are available at the application layer.
An Introduction to Client Server Computing
A server can only accommodate a limited number of client requests at a time. So it uses a system based to priority to respond to the requests.
Denial of Service attacks hindera servers ability to respond to authentic client requests by inundating it with false requests. Three-tier and N-tier notations are similar, although N-tier architecture provides finer-grained layers.
The client issues remote procedure calls to the server to execute the process. Fat servers are the best suited for structured and consistent business logic, such as online transaction processing OLTP.
Open Client/Server Computing and Middleware
Modern RDBMS products support fat servers through stored procedures, column rules, triggers, and other methods. A fat client embeds business logic in the application at the client level. Although a fat client is more flexible than a fat server, it increases network traffic. The fat client approach is used when business logic is loosely structured or when it is too complicated to implement at the middle-tier level.
An Introduction to Client Server Computing
Additionally, fat client development tools, such as 4GL languages, sometimes offer more robust programming features than do middle-tier programming tools. Decision support and ad-hoc systems are often fat client based. This also has the effect of reducing the load on the network that connects the workstation; instead of sending the entire database file back and forth on the wire, the network traffic is reduced to queries to and responses from the database server. Some database servers can even store and run procedures and queries on the server itself, reducing the traffic even more.
Users can continue to use familiar software to access the database, and developers can design front-ends tailored to the workstation on which the software will run, or to the needs of the users running them. For example, it is possible to upgrade the server to a more powerful machine with no visible changes to the end user.
Transaction processing is a method by which the DBMS keeps a running log of all the modifications made to the database over a period of time. Since data is centralized, data management can be centralized.
Some of the system administration functions are security, data integrity and back up recovery. Applications can be created and implemented without much conversance with hardware and software.
Thus, users may obtain client services and transparent access to the services provided by database, communications, and application servers. Introduction 21 x Masked physical data access: SQL is used for data access from database stored anywhere in the network, from the local PC, local server or WAN server, support with the developer and user using the same data request.
The only noticeable difference may be performance degradation if the network bandwidth is inadequate. Logical tables can be accessed without any knowledge of the ordering of column.
Several tables may be joined to create a new logical table for application program manipulation without regard to its physical storage format. In the current user centered word, the desktop provides the point of access to the workgroup and enterprise services without regard to the platform of application execution. Standard services such as login, security, navigation, help, and error recovery are provided consistently amongst all applications.
Developers today are provided with considerable independence.
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The developer of business logic deals with a standard process logic syntax without considering the physical platform. In the case of a small network, the network administrator can usually handle the duties of maintaining the database server, controlling the user access to it, and supporting the front-end applications.
However, the number of database server users rises, or as the database itself grows in size, it usually becomes necessary to hire a database administrator just to run the DBMS and support the front-ends.
It usually makes sense from the performance and data integrity aspects to have the database server running on its own dedicated machine. This usually means downloading a high-powered platform with a large amount of RAM and hard disk space. It is also harder to pinpoint problems when the worst does occur and the system crashes.
It can take longer to get everything set up and working in the first place. This is compounded by the general lack of experience and expertise of potential support personnel and programmers, due to the relative newness of the technology.
Client Server computing is believed to be a subcategory of the peer to peer computing. Advantages of Client Server Computing The different advantages of client server computing are: All the required data is concentrated in a single place i.
So it is easy to protect the data and provide authorisation and authentication. The server need not be located physically close to the clients. Yet the data can be accessed efficiently.
It is easy to replace, upgrade or relocate the nodes in the client server model because all the nodes are independent and request data only from the server. All the nodes i.
Disadvantages of Client Server Computing The different disadvantages of client server computing are: If all the clients simultaneously request data from the server, it may get overloaded. This may lead to congestion in the network.Briefly explain the Transaction-processing Applications. What is Extended SQL?
This topology is shown in the following Fig. Clearly, such a condition is undesirable, and this is where middleware comes in handy. So the question of client server becomes a question of whether or not your business needs centralized database. The underlying reason is simple: Empowerment will ensure that product and services problems and opportunities are identified and centralized.
It determines what needs to be done to complete a task or project, then merges, transforms, and routes the work item through the collaborative process.
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