BIOGRAFI SOEKARNO PDF
MEGAWATI SUKARNO PUTRI DiahPermata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri or well known as Megawati Sukarnoputri is the fifth President of Indonesia. Soekarno: a study of his charismatic leadership and Problematic Hypersexuality. Nanang Erma Soekarno was the first President of Republic of Indonesia post- independence day in. He had . Soekarno: Biografi Singkat Biography of Ir. Soekarno. Uploaded by Damaraeka Adjie Pramana Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate content.
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Soekarno: His Mannerism and Method of Communication (Justin Wejak). Jurusan The inaugural leader of the Republic of Indonesia, President Soekarno, is. Sukarno was the first President of Indonesia, serving from to Sukarno was the "Biografi Presiden Soekarno" (in Indonesian). Biografi Tokoh. ^ Ludwig M., Arnold (). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. University. PDF | On Jan 1, , Devina Widya Putri and others published Inggit Garnasih and Her Big Role Perempuan Dalam Hidup Sukarno: Biografi Inggit Garnasih.
Later, while a student in Bandung , he immersed himself in European, American, Nationalist, communist, and religious political philosophy, eventually developing his own political ideology of Indonesian-style socialist self-sufficiency.
He began styling his ideas as Marhaenism , named after Marhaen, an Indonesian peasant he met in southern Bandung area, who owned his little plot of land and worked on it himself, producing sufficient income to support his family.
In university, Sukarno began organising a study club for Indonesian students, the Algemeene Studieclub, in opposition to the established student clubs dominated by Dutch students. The party advocated independence for Indonesia, and opposed imperialism and capitalism because it opined that both systems worsened the life of Indonesian people. The party also advocated secularism and unity amongst the many different ethnicities in the Dutch East Indies , to establish a united Indonesia.
Sukarno also hoped that Japan would commence a war against the western powers and that Java could then gain its independence with Japan's aid. Coming soon after the disintegration of Sarekat Islam in the early s and the crushing of Partai Komunis Indonesia after their failed rebellion of , PNI began to attract a large number of followers, particularly among the new university-educated youths eager for larger freedoms and opportunities denied to them in the racist and constrictive political system of Dutch colonialism.
Eventually, Sukarno and other key PNI leaders were arrested on 29 December by Dutch colonial authorities in a series of raids throughout Java. Sukarno himself was arrested while on a visit to Yogyakarta. During his trial at the Bandung Landraad courthouse from August to December , Sukarno made a series of long political speeches attacking colonialism and imperialism, titled Indonesia Menggoegat Indonesia Accuses.
In December , Sukarno was sentenced to four years in prison, which were served in Sukamiskin prison in Bandung.
His speech, however, received wide coverage by the press, and due to strong pressure from the liberal elements in both Netherlands and Dutch East Indies , Sukarno was released early on 31 December By this time, he had become a popular hero widely known throughout Indonesia. However, during his imprisonment, PNI had been splintered by oppression of colonial authorities and internal dissension.
The original PNI was disbanded by the Dutch, and its former members formed two different parties; the Partai Indonesia Partindo under Sukarno's associate Sartono who were promoting mass agitation, and the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia PNI Baroe under Mohammad Hatta and Soetan Sjahrir , two nationalists who recently returned from studies in the Netherlands, and who were promoting a long-term strategy of providing modern education to the uneducated Indonesian populace to develop an intellectual elite able to offer effective resistance to Dutch rule.
After attempting to reconcile the two parties to establish one united nationalist front, Sukarno chose to become the head of Partindo on 28 July Partindo had maintained its alignment with Sukarno's own strategy of immediate mass agitation, and Sukarno disagreed with Hatta's long-term cadre-based struggle. Hatta himself believed Indonesian independence would not occur within his lifetime, while Sukarno believed Hatta's strategy ignored the fact that politics can only make real changes through formation and utilisation of force machtsvorming en machtsaanwending.
He also wrote articles for the party's newspaper, Fikiran Ra'jat. While based in Bandung, Sukarno travelled extensively throughout Java to establish contacts with other nationalists.
Biografi bahasa sunda.docx - Biografi Présidén Soekarno
His activities attracted further attention by the Dutch PID. For this writing, he was arrested by Dutch police while visiting fellow nationalist Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin in Jakarta on 1 August Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu. This time, to prevent providing Sukarno with a platform to make political speeches, the hardline governor-general Jonkheer Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge utilised his emergency powers to send Sukarno to internal exile without trial.
In , Sukarno was shipped, along with his family including Inggit Garnasih , to the remote town of Ende , on the island of Flores. During his time in Flores, he utilised his limited freedom of movement to establish a children's theatre. Among its members was future politician Frans Seda.
Due to an outbreak of malaria in Flores, the Dutch authorities decided to move Sukarno and his family to Bencoolen now Bengkulu on western coast of Sumatra , in February In Bengkulu , Sukarno became acquainted with Hassan Din, the local head of Muhammadiyah organisation, and he was allowed to teach religious teachings at a local school owned by the Muhammadiyah.
One of his students was year-old Fatmawati , daughter of Hassan Din. He became romantically involved with Fatmawati, which he justified by stating the inability of Inggit Garnasih to produce children during their almost year marriage. Sukarno was still in Bengkulu exile when the Japanese invaded the archipelago in They intended keeping him prisoner and shipping him to Australia, but abruptly abandoned him to save themselves upon the impending approach of Japanese forces on Padang.
Sukarno on the other hand wanted to use the Japanese to gain independence for Indonesia: "The Lord be praised, God showed me the way; in that valley of the Ngarai I said: Yes, Independent Indonesia can only be achieved with Dai Nippon For the first time in all my life, I saw myself in the mirror of Asia.
There, he met the Japanese commander General Hitoshi Imamura , who asked Sukarno and other nationalists to galvanise support from Indonesian populace to aid Japanese war effort.
Play media ABC report examining Sukarno's alliance between imperial Japan and the Indonesian nationalist movement Sukarno was willing to support the Japanese, in exchange for a platform for himself to spread nationalist ideas to the mass population.
The Japanese, on the other hand, needed Indonesia's manpower and natural resources to help its war effort.
The Japanese recruited millions of people, particularly from Java , to be forced labor called " romusha " in Japanese. They were forced to build railways, airfields, and other facilities for the Japanese within Indonesia and as far away as Burma. Additionally, the Japanese requisitioned rice and other food produced by Indonesian peasants to supply their own troops, while forcing the peasantry to cultivate castor oil plants to be used as aviation fuel and lubricants.
The aim of these organisations were to galvanise popular support for recruitment of romusha forced labor, requisitioning of food products, and to promote pro-Japanese and anti-Western sentiments amongst Indonesians. Sukarno coined the term, Amerika kita setrika, Inggris kita linggis "Let's iron America, and bludgeon the British" to promote anti-Allied sentiments. In later years, Sukarno was lastingly ashamed of his role with the romusha.
Additionally, food requisitioning by the Japanese caused widespread famine in Java which killed more than one million people in — In his view, these were necessary sacrifices to be made to allow for future independence of Indonesia. It also established an organization focused exclusively on arts and culture that "competed" with Poetera.
Noordwijk 39, Jakarta. This organization included a number of legendary artists, including Sanusi Pane literature , Agus Djaja visual arts , Usmar Ismail film , Koesbini music , and Djauhar Arifin theater.
These included exhibitions held in Java's major cities fourteen by , according to the newspaper Asia Raya. Sukarno speech during an inauguration ceremony, together with Japanese officials, at the Gedung Poetra.
Source: Panji Poestaka No. In the days following the proclamation of Indonesia's independence, on 17 August , Sukarno remained active.
Soekarno : biografi singkat,
In a "secret space" in Balai Pustaka, Central Jakarta, he sought to promote the struggle. Sukarno asked Sudjojono to ensure that artists produced a number of pro-revolution posters. Sudjojono then sought the support of Balai Pustaka's leadership, as it was frequently responsible for graphic design. For this poster, Balai Pustaka hired Affandi, who took the artist Dullah as his model.
Depicting a powerful and shouting revolutionary, waving Indonesia's red-and-white flag, this 30 x 35 cm poster is otherwise empty, without any text.
The painter Basoeki Abdullah is holding the painting being presented, Portrait of General Imamura, Source: Aiko Kurusawa Between his other activities, the poet Chairil Anwar was tasked with writing text for this poster. Thus "Boeng, Ajo Boeng! According to Sudjojono, such a phrase was common among the contemporary Indonesian people.
It was used, for example, by prostitutes to attract the attention of men desiring their services. This poster was reproduced by Abdulsalam, Suwiryo then the Mayor of Jakarta , Suromo, and other artists, to be distributed throughout the republican territory.
Sukarno was greatly moved by this provocative poster, and asked Sudjojono who the model was. Hearing this name, Sukarno was tickled, "Dullah? Belanda pasti tidak menyangka bahwa model dalam poster itu orangnya kecil. The Dutch would never guess that this poster's model is so tiny. Furthermore, Sukarno asked painters to create portraits of Indonesia's heroes. No written documentation of this duty has been found. However, authentic evidence is presented by these paintings and photographs of these paintings on display.
Some were used in formal activities while Sukarno lived at Gedung Agung—the Yogyakarta palace. The first shows a ceremony commemorating the second anniversary of Indonesia's independence, with Sukarno sitting together with Fatmawati and Mohammad Hatta, listening to a report by the committee chairman Ki Hadjar Dewantara.
Information on the second photograph is lacking. It was, however, likely taken in the same year, at a different event. This photograph appears to depict a formal event in the main hall of Gedung Agung, again with Potret Pangeran Diponegoro behind him, sitting on an easel.
Letter establishing the National Art Museum, signed by Sukarno. Sukarno at an event at the Yogyakarta Presidential Palace. Photo: State Secretariat of Indonesia It appears that Sukarno did not order only these two portraits.
Presently, twelve such paintings are held in the collection. They remain in good condition, although they require special treatment. These were produced by such artists as S.
Sudjojono, Affandi, Suromo, Harijadi S. Most of these portraits, which decorate the palace walls and preserve the memory of the nation, used a realistic approach and reflect the artists' personal styles. In the s and s, Sukarno continuously and intensely sought to fill his presidential palaces with artworks. He not only brought the works held at his home on Jalan Pegangsaan Timur, which he had collected before he became president, but also carried with him the works he acquired in Yogyakarta.
His relationships with artists ensured that numerous new works entered the palace collection. His presidential activities and his negotiations with the leaders of other nations likewise contributed importantly to the collection's growth.
Often, while returning home from a trip abroad, he would bring home works of art. It is thus hardly surprising that, in these three decades, Sukarno was able to collect more than a thousand artworks.
Sukarno, Dullah crouched , and Gapoer examining a painting at Merdeka Palace, s.
Documentation of Dullah Museum. This means that, for three decades, Sukarno motored modern Indonesian art as best as he could. His patronage was characterized by, among others: Painting and drawing caricatures as part of the development of his personal ideas and as an expression of the political struggles of the nation. Helping found arts organizations and creating a legal umbrella for them so they could become part of the struggle for independence or a means to develop patriotism and nationhood, as with Poetera during the Japanese occupation era.
Recruiting painters as co-workers and managers of art objects in the Presidential Palace. Inspiring and suggesting ideas to artists painters, sculptors, poster artists, photographers , and initiating art exhibitions.
Frequently downloading works of art at exhibitions and studios. Having meals and discussions with artists and their families at the Presidential Palace. Saving artists from imprisonment or death for ideological reasons.
Sitting as a model for sketches, paintings, sculptures, and photographs. Regularly reviewing his collection and displaying Palace artworks. Providing information about artworks to palace guests, both domestic and international. Watching artists at work and giving critical commentary when considered necessary. Supporting the establishment of galleries and inviting guests to visit and appreciate them, and even encouraging guests to become collectors.
Recommending artists to travel or reside abroad. Bringing artworks as souvenirs from abroad and vice versa. Making the palace a museum of art. Publishing high quality books on his collections so that works could be appreciated widely, even if only as photographic reproductions.
Conclusion: Sukarno and Artists Circumstances in s Indonesia were highly distinctive. Sukarno, as a revolutionary leader, proclaimer of Indonesian independence, and President helped shape them in his own way. Sukarno, who loved beauty, also liked to see himself very much, as can be observed particularly in photographs.
Sukarno was very fond of the camera, and his various activities—including his meetings with artists—were therefore never far away from photographers' lenses. A heap of anecdotes, archives, and photographs seem to suggest that Sukarno indeed lived in two worlds: politics and the arts.
Most works in his collection have become important in the history of Indonesian art, and the artists are being recognized as maestros in the Indonesian and Asian art worlds. My research has revealed just how Sukarno lived at the dawn of modern Indonesian art.
Collector & Patron of Modern Indonesian Art
To some extent, it may be said that Sukarno lived on the vanguard of early Indonesian art. Most prominent figures in Indonesian art were born at the turn of the century, i. Artists born around that time include Affandi , S. Therefore, Sukarno's rise coincided with the development of modern art in Indonesia. He and the aforementioned artists worked shoulder to shoulder to build Indonesia. In addition to working for themselves, these artists performed tasks for the State represented, in this case, by Sukarno.
During the pre-independence period, they worked on posters and running exhibitions. In the time immediately following Indonesia's proclamation of independence, they personally explored the meaning of freedom and expressed it through their art. Generally, these artists came to know Sukarno in the pre-independence era. Most met him during the Japanese occupation, with the exception of Basoeki Abdullah, who had known Sukarno since the s. They interacted intensely, both on a personal and an organizational level.
As such, during this time they must have learned about each other. The situation was different for artists based in Bali, with whom Sukarno began to become acquainted in the s. Sukarno's relationships with these artists became more intense when he was building the Tampaksiring Palace, and they were reinforced by Sukarno's visits with State guests and vacations in Bali.
Sukarno and Le Mayeur in Sanur Bali Sukarno and Rudolf Bonnet at Tampaksiring Palace These artists' close relationships with Sukarno through the s clearly showed on the occasions when Sukarno invited them to the palace, particularly those artists based in Java.
Dullah immediately came to "live under the same roof" with Sukarno for some ten years. While other painters were invited to dine at the palace and discuss artworks, Dullah was tasked with many things by Sukarno, including painting, maintaining art objects, and taking pictures of Sukarno's daily activities. Dullah became Sukarno's "shadow". The s and s appear to have been the golden age for Sukarno's relationship with artists.
The decade saw such relationships growing increasingly intense, as evident in the president's visits to artists' studios and art exhibitions. This was also the decade when Sukarno asked the national leaders of various countries to give Indonesian artists the opportunity to go abroad.
Sukarno's affinity with artists delighted them most when Sukarno bought their works. Within a decade, Sukarno had acquired about a thousand modern Indonesian artworks. Sukarno and Agus Djaja in Sanur right , all in s. Documentation: Mikke Susanto. In the early s, Sukarno continued to collaborate with artists, recruiting a number of them to take part in the creation of several monuments in Jakarta. The political turmoil of the s in Indonesia peaked in September Following this year, Sukarno experienced severe challenges and difficulties.
Until his death in , he remained separated from artists, an experience that saddened him greatly. Some adjutants said that he was allowed to associate with art only in the palace. The worst, thus, came in when the sick president was ordered to leave the palace and move to Wisma Yaso building, Jakarta. There he had to stay under city arrest, and not everyone was permitted to visit him. Sukarno told his children to bring nothing but clothing with them when leaving the palace.
As such, the artworks he collected were fully intended to become everlasting residents of presidential palaces. His art criticism has been published in mass media and several journals. He also works as an independent curator, having handled more than exhibitions in Indonesia as well as abroad. In , he was appointed as a curatorial consultant for the Museum of the Presidential Palace of Indonesia, and he has often been consulted regarding museum matters and exhibition management.Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received money, weapons, and manpower from the CIA in a campaign known as Archipelago.
Help Center Find new research papers in: His speech, however, received wide coverage by the press, and due to strong pressure from the liberal elements in both Netherlands and Dutch East Indies , Sukarno was released early on 31 December Yogyakarta would remain as the Republic's capital until the end of the war in However, due to the relative weakness of the military of the Republic of Indonesia, Sukarno sought independence by gaining international recognition for his new country rather than engage in battle with British and Dutch military forces.
Sukarno himself was arrested while on a visit to Yogyakarta. Initially, he felt himself living under pressure, his life full of stress. First President of the Republic of Indonesia.